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中国坚持通过谈判解决中国与菲律宾在南海的有关争议

2016-7-14 08:22| 发布者: admin| 查看: 9434| 评论: 13|原作者: Damein|来自: 南海研究论坛

摘要: 原文链接:http://www.scio.gov.cn/zxbd/tt/Document/1483572/1483572.htm人民网链接:http://world.people.com.cn/GB/8212/191606/404231/405843/index.htmlpdf下载:国务院新闻办公室7月13日发表了《中国坚持通过 ...
pdf下载:book-cn.pdf
国务院新闻办公室7月13日发表了《中国坚持通过谈判解决中国与菲律宾在南海的有关争议》白皮书。全文如下:
中国坚持通过谈判解决中国与菲律宾在南海的有关争议
(2016年7月)
中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
  目 录
  引 言
  一、南海诸岛是中国固有领土
  (一)中国对南海诸岛的主权是历史上确立的
  (二)中国始终坚定维护在南海的领土主权和海洋权益
  (三)中国对南海诸岛的主权得到国际社会广泛承认
  二、中菲南海有关争议的由来
  (一)菲律宾非法侵占行为制造了中菲南沙岛礁争议
  (二)菲律宾的非法主张毫无历史和法理依据
  (三)国际海洋法制度的发展导致中菲出现海洋划界争议
  三、中菲已就解决南海有关争议达成共识
  (一)通过谈判解决南海有关争议是中菲共识和承诺
  (二)妥善管控南海有关争议是中菲之间的共识
  四、菲律宾一再采取导致争议复杂化的行动
  (一)菲律宾企图扩大对中国南沙群岛部分岛礁的侵占
  (二)菲律宾一再扩大海上侵权
  (三)菲律宾企图染指中国黄岩岛
  (四)菲律宾单方面提起仲裁是恶意行为
  五、中国处理南海问题的政策
  (一)关于南沙群岛领土问题
  (二)关于南海海洋划界问题
  (三)关于争端解决方式
  (四)关于在南海管控分歧和开展海上务实合作
  (五)关于南海航行自由和安全
  (六)关于共同维护南海和平稳定
  引 言
  1. 南海位于中国大陆的南面,通过狭窄的海峡或水道,东与太平洋相连,西与印度洋相通,是一个东北-西南走向的半闭海。南海北靠中国大陆和台湾岛,南接加里曼丹岛和苏门答腊岛,东临菲律宾群岛,西接中南半岛和马来半岛。
  2. 中国南海诸岛包括东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛和南沙群岛。这些群岛分别由数量不等、大小不一的岛、礁、滩、沙等组成。其中,南沙群岛的岛礁最多,范围最广。
  3. 中国人民在南海的活动已有2000多年历史。中国最早发现、命名和开发利用南海诸岛及相关海域,最早并持续、和平、有效地对南海诸岛及相关海域行使主权和管辖。中国对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益,是在漫长的历史过程中确立的,具有充分的历史和法理依据。
  4. 中国和菲律宾隔海相望,交往密切,人民世代友好,原本不存在领土和海洋划界争议。然而,自20世纪70年代起,菲律宾开始非法侵占南沙群岛部分岛礁,由此制造了中菲南沙群岛部分岛礁领土问题。此外,随着国际海洋法的发展,两国在南海部分海域还出现了海洋划界争议。
  5. 中菲两国尚未举行旨在解决南海有关争议的任何谈判,但确曾就妥善处理海上争议进行多次磋商,就通过谈判协商解决有关争议达成共识,并在双边文件中多次予以确认。双方还在中国和东盟国家2002年共同签署的《南海各方行为宣言》(以下简称《宣言》)中就通过谈判协商解决有关争议作出郑重承诺。
  6. 2013年1月,菲律宾共和国时任政府违背上述共识和承诺,单方面提起南海仲裁案。菲律宾把原本不属于《联合国海洋法公约》(以下简称《公约》)调整的领土问题,以及被中国2006年依据《公约》第298条作出的排除性声明排除的海洋划界等争议加以曲解和包装,构成对《公约》争端解决机制的滥用。菲律宾妄图借此否定中国在南海的领土主权和海洋权益。
  7. 本文件旨在还原中菲南海有关争议的事实真相,重申中国在南海问题上的一贯立场和政策,溯本清源,以正视听。
  一、南海诸岛是中国固有领土
  (一)中国对南海诸岛的主权是历史上确立的
  8. 中国人民自古以来在南海诸岛和相关海域生活和从事生产活动。中国最早发现、命名和开发利用南海诸岛及相关海域,最早并持续、和平、有效地对南海诸岛及相关海域行使主权和管辖,确立了对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益。
  9. 早在公元前2世纪的西汉时期,中国人民就在南海航行,并在长期实践中发现了南海诸岛。
  10. 中国历史古籍,例如东汉的《异物志》、三国时期的《扶南传》、宋代的《梦粱录》和《岭外代答》、元代的《岛夷志略》、明代的《东西洋考》和《顺风相送》、清代的《指南正法》和《海国闻见录》等,不仅记载了中国人民在南海的活动情况,而且记录了南海诸岛的地理位置和地貌特征、南海的水文和气象特点,以很多生动形象的名称为南海诸岛命名,如“涨海崎头”、“珊瑚洲”、“九乳螺洲”、“石塘”、“千里石塘”、“万里石塘”、“长沙”、“千里长沙”、“万里长沙”等。
  11. 中国渔民在开发利用南海的历史过程中还形成一套相对固定的南海诸岛命名体系:如将岛和沙洲称为“峙”,将礁称为“铲”、“线”、“沙”,将环礁称为“匡”、“圈”、“塘”,将暗沙称为“沙排”等。明清时期形成的《更路簿》是中国渔民往来于中国大陆沿海地区和南海诸岛之间的航海指南,以多种版本的手抄本流传并沿用至今;记录了中国人民在南海诸岛的生活和生产开发活动,记载了中国渔民对南海诸岛的命名。其中对南沙群岛岛、礁、滩、沙的命名至少有70余处,有的用罗盘方位命名,如丑未(渚碧礁)、东头乙辛(蓬勃暗沙);有的用特产命名,如赤瓜线(赤瓜礁)、墨瓜线(南屏礁);有的用岛礁形状命名,如鸟串(仙娥礁)、双担(信义礁);有的用某种实物命名,如锅盖峙(安波沙洲)、秤钩峙(景宏岛);有的以水道命名,如六门沙(六门礁)。
  12. 中国人民对南海诸岛的命名,部分被西方航海家引用并标注在一些19至20世纪权威的航海指南和海图中。如Namyit(鸿庥岛)、Sin Cowe(景宏岛)、Subi(渚碧礁)来源于海南方言发音“南乙”、“秤钩”、“丑未”。
  13. 大量历史文献和文物资料证明,中国人民对南海诸岛及相关海域进行了持续不断的开发和利用。明清以来,中国渔民每年乘东北信风南下至南沙群岛海域从事渔业生产活动,直至次年乘西南信风返回大陆。还有部分中国渔民常年留居岛上,站峙捕捞、挖井汲水、垦荒种植、盖房建庙、饲养禽畜等。根据中外史料记载和考古发现,南沙群岛部分岛礁上曾有中国渔民留下的作物、水井、房屋、庙宇、墓塚和碑刻等。
  14. 许多外国文献记录了很长一段时间内只有中国人在南沙群岛生产生活的事实。
  15. 1868年出版的英国海军部《中国海指南》提到南沙群岛郑和群礁时指出:“海南渔民,以捕取海参、介壳为活,各岛都有其足迹,也有久居岛礁上的”,“在太平岛上的渔民要比其他岛上的渔民生活得更加舒适,与其他岛相比,太平岛上的井水要好得多”。1906年的《中国海指南》以及1912年、1923年、1937年等各版《中国航海志》多处载明中国渔民在南沙群岛上生产生活。
  16. 1933年9月在法国出版的《彩绘殖民地世界》杂志记载:南沙群岛9岛之中,惟有华人(海南人)居住,华人之外并无他国人。当时西南岛(南子岛)上计有居民7人,中有孩童2人;帝都岛(中业岛)上计有居民5人;斯帕拉岛(南威岛)计有居民4人,较1930年且增加1人;罗湾岛(南钥岛)上,有华人所留之神座、茅屋、水井;伊都阿巴岛(太平岛),虽不见人迹,而发现中国字碑,大意谓运粮至此,觅不见人,因留藏于铁皮(法文原文为石头)之下;其他各岛,亦到处可见渔人居住之踪迹。该杂志还记载,太平岛、中业岛、南威岛等岛屿上植被茂盛,有水井可饮用,种有椰子树、香蕉树、木瓜树、菠萝、青菜、土豆等,蓄养有家禽,适合人类居住。
  17. 1940年出版的日本文献《暴风之岛》和1925年美国海军航道测量署发行的《亚洲领航》(第四卷)等也记载了中国渔民在南沙群岛生产生活的情况。
  18. 中国是最早开始并持续对南海诸岛及相关海上活动进行管理的国家。历史上,中国通过行政设治、水师巡视、资源开发、天文测量、地理调查等手段,对南海诸岛和相关海域进行了持续、和平、有效的管辖。
  19. 例如,宋代,中国在两广地区设有经略安抚使,总绥南疆。宋代曾公亮在《武经总要》中提到中国为加强南海海防,设立巡海水师,巡视南海。清代明谊编著的《琼州府志》、钟元棣编著的《崖州志》等著作都把“石塘”、“长沙”列入“海防”条目。
  20. 中国很多官修地方志,如《广东通志》、《琼州府志》、《万州志》等,在“疆域”或“舆地山川”条目中有“万州有千里长沙、万里石塘”或类似记载。
  21. 中国历代政府还在官方地图上将南海诸岛标绘为中国领土。1755年《皇清各直省分图》之《天下总舆图》、1767年《大清万年一统天下图》、1810年《大清万年一统地理全图》、1817年《大清一统天下全图》等地图均将南海诸岛绘入中国版图。
  22. 历史事实表明,中国人民一直将南海诸岛和相关海域作为生产和生活的场所,从事各种开发利用活动。中国历代政府也持续、和平、有效地对南海诸岛实施管辖。在长期历史过程中,中国确立了对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益,中国人民早已成为南海诸岛的主人。


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引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:56
  (二)中国始终坚定维护在南海的领土主权和海洋权益
  23. 中国对南海诸岛的主权在20世纪前未遭遇任何挑战。20世纪30年代至40年代,法国和日本先后以武力非法侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁。对此,中国人民奋起抵抗,当时中国政府采取一系列措施,捍卫对南沙群岛的主权。
  24. 1933年,法国曾经一度侵入南沙群岛部分岛礁,发布政府公报宣告“占领”,制造了“九小岛事件”。中国各地各界反应强烈、群起抗议,纷纷谴责法国的侵略行径。居住在南沙群岛的中国渔民也在实地进行抵抗,符洪光、柯家裕、郑兰锭等人砍倒法国在太平岛、北子岛、南威岛、中业岛等岛上悬挂法国国旗的旗杆。
  25. “九小岛事件”发生后,中国外交部发言人表示,南沙群岛有关岛屿“仅有我渔人居留岛上,在国际上确认为中国领土”,中国政府就法方侵入九小岛提出严正交涉。同时,广东省政府针对法国诱骗中国渔民悬挂法国国旗,命令各县长布告,禁止在南沙群岛及海域作业的中国渔船悬挂外国旗帜,并给渔民发放中国国旗,要求悬挂。
  26. 由外交部、内政部、海军部等部门组成的水陆地图审查委员会,专门审定中国南海诸岛各岛、礁、滩、沙名称,并于1935年编印并公布了《中国南海各岛屿图》。
  27. 日本在侵华战争期间曾非法侵占中国南海诸岛。中国人民对日本的侵略进行了英勇抵抗。随着世界反法西斯战争和中国人民抗日战争的推进,中、美、英三国于1943年12月发表《开罗宣言》郑重宣布,日本必须将所窃取的中国领土归还中国。1945年7月,中、美、英三国发表《波茨坦公告》,其中第8条明确规定,“开罗宣言之条件必将实施”。
  28. 1945年8月,日本宣布接受《波茨坦公告》无条件投降。1946年11月至12月,中国政府指派林遵上校等高级军政官员,乘坐“永兴”、“中建”、“太平”、“中业”4艘军舰,分赴西沙群岛和南沙群岛,举行仪式,重立主权碑,派兵驻守。随后,中国政府用上述4艘军舰名对西沙群岛和南沙群岛的4个岛屿进行重新命名。
  29. 1947年3月,中国政府在太平岛设立南沙群岛管理处,隶属广东省。中国还在太平岛设立气象台和电台,自6月起对外广播气象信息。
  30. 在对南海诸岛重新进行地理测绘的基础上,中国政府于1947年组织编写了《南海诸岛地理志略》,审定《南海诸岛新旧名称对照表》,绘制标有南海断续线的《南海诸岛位置图》。1948年2月,中国政府公布《中华民国行政区域图》,包括《南海诸岛位置图》。
  31. 1949年6月,中国政府颁布《海南特区行政长官公署组织条例》,把“海南岛、东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛及其他附属岛屿”划入海南特区。
  32. 中华人民共和国1949年10月1日成立后,多次重申并采取立法、行政设治、外交交涉等措施进一步维护对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益。中国对南海诸岛及相关海域的巡逻执法、资源开发和科学考察等活动从未中断过。
  33. 1951年8月,中国外交部长周恩来发表《关于美英对日和约草案及旧金山会议的声明》指出,“西沙群岛和南威岛正如整个南沙群岛及中沙群岛、东沙群岛一样,向为中国领土,在日本帝国主义发动侵略战争时虽曾一度沦陷,但日本投降后已为当时中国政府全部接收”,“中华人民共和国在南威岛和西沙群岛之不可侵犯的主权,不论美英对日和约草案有无规定及如何规定,均不受任何影响”。
  34. 1958年9月,中国发布《中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明》,明确规定中国领海宽度为12海里,采用直线基线方法划定领海基线,上述规定适用于中华人民共和国的一切领土,包括“东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿”。
  35. 1959年3月,中国政府在西沙群岛的永兴岛设立“西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛办事处”;1969年3月,该“办事处”改称“广东省西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛革命委员会”;1981年10月,恢复“西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛办事处”的称谓。
  36. 1983年4月,中国地名委员会受权公布南海诸岛部分标准地名,总计287个。
  37. 1984年5月,第六届全国人民代表大会第二次会议决定设立海南行政区,管辖范围包括西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛的岛礁及其海域。
  38. 1988年4月,第七届全国人民代表大会第一次会议决定设立海南省,管辖范围包括西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛的岛礁及其海域。
  39. 1992年2月,中国颁布《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法》,确立了中国领海和毗连区的基本法律制度,并明确规定:“中华人民共和国的陆地领土包括……东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他一切属于中华人民共和国的岛屿”。1996年5月,第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十九次会议决定,批准《联合国海洋法公约》,同时声明“中华人民共和国重申对1992年2月25日颁布的《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法》第2条所列各群岛及岛屿的主权。”
  40. 1996年5月,中国政府宣布中国大陆沿海由山东高角至海南岛峻壁角49个领海基点和由直线相连的领海基线,以及西沙群岛28个领海基点和由直线相连的基线,并宣布将另行公布其余领海基线。
  41. 1998年6月,中国颁布《中华人民共和国专属经济区和大陆架法》,确立了中国专属经济区和大陆架的基本法律制度,并明确规定:“本法的规定不影响中华人民共和国享有的历史性权利”。
  42. 2012年6月,国务院批准撤销海南省西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛办事处,设立地级三沙市,管辖西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛的岛礁及其海域。
  43. 中国高度重视南海生态和渔业资源保护。自1999年起,中国实施南海伏季休渔制度。截至2015年底,中国在南海共建成国家级水生生物自然保护区6处,省级水生生物自然保护区6处,总面积达269万公顷;国家级水产种质资源保护区7处,总面积达128万公顷。
  44. 自20世纪50年代以来,中国台湾当局一直驻守在南沙群岛太平岛,设有民事服务管理机构,并对岛上自然资源进行开发利用。
  (三)中国对南海诸岛的主权得到国际社会广泛承认
  45. 第二次世界大战结束后,中国收复南海诸岛并恢复行使主权,世界上许多国家都承认南海诸岛是中国领土。
  46. 1951年,旧金山对日和约会议规定日本放弃对南沙群岛和西沙群岛的一切权利、权利名义与要求。1952年,日本政府正式表示放弃对台湾、澎湖列岛以及南沙群岛、西沙群岛之一切权利、权利名义与要求。同年,由时任日本外务大臣冈崎胜男亲笔签字推荐的《标准世界地图集》第十五图《东南亚图》,把和约规定日本必须放弃的西沙、南沙群岛及东沙、中沙群岛全部标绘属于中国。
  47. 1955年10月,国际民航组织在马尼拉召开会议,美国、英国、法国、日本、加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰、泰国、菲律宾、南越和中国台湾当局派代表出席,菲律宾代表为会议主席,法国代表为副主席。会议通过的第24号决议要求中国台湾当局在南沙群岛加强气象观测,而会上没有任何一个代表对此提出异议或保留。
  48. 1958年9月4日,中国政府发布《中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明》,宣布中国的领海宽度为12海里,明确指出:“这项规定适用于中华人民共和国的一切领土,包括……东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿。”9月14日,越南政府总理范文同照会中国国务院总理周恩来郑重表示,“越南民主共和国政府承认和赞同中华人民共和国政府1958年9月4日关于领海决定的声明”,“越南民主共和国政府尊重这项决定”。
  49. 1956年8月,美国驻台机构一等秘书韦士德向中国台湾当局口头申请,美军人员拟前往黄岩岛、双子群礁、景宏岛、鸿庥岛、南威岛等中沙和南沙群岛岛礁进行地形测量。中国台湾当局随后同意了美方的申请。
  50. 1960年12月,美国政府致函中国台湾当局,“请求准许”美军事人员赴南沙群岛双子群礁、景宏岛、南威岛进行实地测量。中国台湾当局批准了上述申请。
  51. 1972年,在《中华人民共和国政府与日本国政府联合声明》中,日本重申坚持遵循《波茨坦公告》第8条规定。
  52. 据法新社报道,1974年2月4日,时任印度尼西亚外长马利克表示,“如果我们看一看现在发行的地图,就可以从图上看到帕拉塞尔群岛(西沙群岛)和斯普拉特利群岛(南沙群岛)都是属于中国的”;由于我们承认只存在一个中国,“这意味着,对我们来讲,这些群岛属于中华人民共和国”。
  53. 1987年3月17日至4月1日,联合国教科文组织政府间海洋学委员会第14次会议讨论了该委员会秘书处提交的《全球海平面观测系统实施计划1985-1990》(IOC/INF-663 REV)。该文件建议将西沙群岛和南沙群岛纳入全球海平面观测系统,并将这两个群岛明文列属“中华人民共和国”。为执行该计划,中国政府被委任建设5个海洋观测站,包括南沙群岛和西沙群岛上各1个。
  54. 南海诸岛属于中国早已成为国际社会的普遍认识。在许多国家出版的百科全书、年鉴和地图都将南沙群岛标属中国。例如,1960年美国威尔德麦克出版社出版的《威尔德麦克各国百科全书》;1966年日本极东书店出版的《新中国年鉴》;1957、1958和1961年在联邦德国出版的《世界大地图集》;1958年在民主德国出版的《地球与地理地图集》;1968年在民主德国出版的《哈克世界大地图集》;1954至1959年在苏联出版的《世界地图集》;1957年在苏联出版的《外国行政区域划分》附图;1959年在匈牙利出版的《世界地图集》;1974年在匈牙利出版的《插图本世界政治经济地图集》;1959年在捷克斯洛伐克出版的《袖珍世界地图集》;1977年在罗马尼亚出版的《世界地理图集》;1965年法国拉鲁斯出版社出版的《国际政治与经济地图集》;1969年法国拉鲁斯出版社出版的《拉鲁斯现代地图集》;1972年和1983年日本平凡社出版的《世界大百科事典》中所附地图和1985年出版的《世界大地图集》;以及1980年日本国土地理协会出版的《世界与各国》附图等。
  二、中菲南海有关争议的由来
  55. 中菲南海有关争议的核心是菲律宾非法侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁而产生的领土问题。此外,随着国际海洋法制度的发展,中菲在南海部分海域还出现了海洋划界争议。
  (一)菲律宾非法侵占行为制造了中菲南沙岛礁争议
  56. 菲律宾的领土范围是由包括1898年《美西和平条约》(《巴黎条约》)、1900年《美西关于菲律宾外围岛屿割让的条约》(《华盛顿条约》)、1930年《关于划定英属北婆罗洲与美属菲律宾之间的边界条约》在内的一系列国际条约确定的。
  57. 中国南海诸岛在菲律宾领土范围之外。
  58. 20世纪50年代,菲律宾曾企图染指中国南沙群岛。但在中国坚决反对下,菲律宾收手了。1956年5月,菲律宾人克洛马组织私人探险队到南沙群岛活动,擅自将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁称为“自由地”。随后,菲律宾副总统兼外长加西亚对克洛马的活动表示支持。对此,中国外交部发言人于5月29日发表声明,严正指出:南沙群岛“向来是中国领土的一部分。中华人民共和国对这些岛屿具有无可争辩的合法主权……绝不容许任何国家以任何借口和采取任何方式加以侵犯”。同时,中国台湾当局派军舰赴南沙群岛巡弋,恢复在南沙群岛太平岛上驻守。此后,菲律宾外交部表示,克洛马此举菲律宾政府事前并不知情,亦未加以同意。
  59. 自20世纪70年代起,菲律宾先后以武力侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁,并提出非法领土要求。1970年8月和9月,菲律宾非法侵占马欢岛和费信岛;1971年4月,菲律宾非法侵占南钥岛和中业岛;1971年7月,菲律宾非法侵占西月岛和北子岛;1978年3月和1980年7月,菲律宾非法侵占双黄沙洲和司令礁。1978年6月,菲律宾总统马科斯签署第1596号总统令,将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁并连同周边大范围海域称为“卡拉延岛群”(“卡拉延”在他加禄语中意为“自由”),划设“卡拉延镇区”,非法列入菲律宾领土范围。
  60. 菲律宾还通过一系列国内立法,提出了自己的领海、专属经济区和大陆架等主张。其中部分与中国在南海的海洋权益产生冲突。
  61. 菲律宾为掩盖其非法侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁的事实,实现其领土扩张的野心,炮制了一系列借口,包括:“卡拉延岛群”不属于南沙群岛,是“无主地”;南沙群岛在二战后是“托管地”;菲律宾占领南沙群岛是依据“地理邻近”和出于“国家安全”需要;“南沙群岛部分岛礁位于菲律宾专属经济区和大陆架上”;菲律宾“有效控制”有关岛礁已成为不能改变的“现状”等。
  (二)菲律宾的非法主张毫无历史和法理依据
  62. 从历史和国际法看,菲律宾对南沙群岛部分岛礁的领土主张毫无根据。
  63. 第一,南沙群岛从来不是菲律宾领土的组成部分。菲律宾的领土范围已由一系列国际条约所确定。对此,菲律宾当时的统治者美国是非常清楚的。1933年8月12日,美属菲律宾前参议员陆雷彝致信美国驻菲律宾总督墨菲,试图以地理邻近为由主张一些南沙岛屿构成菲律宾群岛一部分。有关信件被转交美国陆军部和国务院处理。1933年10月9日,美国国务卿复信称,“这些岛屿……远在1898年从西班牙获得的菲律宾群岛的界限之外”。1935年5月,美国陆军部长邓恩致函国务卿赫尔,请求国务院就菲律宾对南沙群岛部分岛屿提出领土要求的“合法性和适当性”发表意见。美国国务院历史顾问办公室一份由博格斯等签署的备忘录指出,“显然,美国毫无根据主张有关岛屿构成菲律宾群岛的一部分。”8月20日,美国国务卿赫尔复函美国陆军部长邓恩称,“美国依据1898年条约从西班牙获得的菲律宾群岛的岛屿仅限于第三条规定的界限以内”,同时关于南沙群岛有关岛屿,“需要指出的是,没有任何迹象显示西班牙曾对这些岛屿中的任何一个行使主权或提出主张”。这些文件证明,菲律宾领土从来不包括南海诸岛,这一事实为包括美国在内的国际社会所承认。
  64. 第二,“卡拉延岛群”是菲律宾发现的“无主地”,这一说法根本不成立。菲律宾以其国民于1956年所谓“发现”为基础,将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁称为“卡拉延岛群”,企图制造地理名称和概念上的混乱,并割裂南沙群岛。事实上,南沙群岛的地理范围是清楚和明确的,菲律宾所谓“卡拉延岛群”就是中国南沙群岛的一部分。南沙群岛早已成为中国领土不可分割的组成部分,绝非“无主地”。
  65. 第三,南沙群岛也不是所谓的“托管地”。菲律宾称,二战后南沙群岛是“托管地”,主权未定。菲律宾的说法从法律和事实看,都没有根据。二战后的“托管地”,均在有关国际条约或联合国托管理事会相关文件中明确开列,南沙群岛从未出现在上述名单上,根本就不是“托管地”。
  66. 第四,“地理邻近”和“国家安全”都不是领土取得的国际法依据。世界上许多国家的部分领土远离其本土,有的甚至位于他国近岸。美国殖民统治菲律宾期间,就菲律宾群岛附近一座岛屿的主权与荷兰产生争端,美国以“地理邻近”为由提出的领土主张被判定为没有国际法依据。以所谓“国家安全”为由侵占他国领土更是荒谬的。
  67. 第五,菲律宾称,中国南沙群岛部分岛礁位于其专属经济区和大陆架范围内,因此有关岛礁属于菲律宾或构成菲律宾大陆架组成部分。这一主张企图以《公约》所赋予的海洋管辖权否定中国领土主权,与“陆地统治海洋”的国际法原则背道而驰,完全不符合《公约》的宗旨和目的。《公约》序言规定:“在妥为顾及所有国家主权的情形下,为海洋建立一种法律秩序……。”因此,沿海国必须在尊重他国领土主权的前提下主张海洋管辖权,不能将自己的海洋管辖权扩展到他国领土上,更不能以此否定他国主权,侵犯他国领土。
  68. 第六,菲律宾所谓的“有效控制”是建立在非法侵占基础上的,是非法无效的。国际社会不承认武力侵占形成的所谓“有效控制”。菲律宾所谓“有效控制”是对中国南沙群岛部分岛礁赤裸裸的武力侵占,违背了《联合国宪章》(以下简称《宪章》)和国际关系基本准则,为国际法所明确禁止。菲律宾建立在非法侵占基础上的所谓“有效控制”,不能改变南沙群岛是中国领土的基本事实。中国坚决反对任何人试图把南沙群岛部分岛礁被侵占的状态视为所谓“既成事实”或“现状”,中国对此绝不承认。

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:57
  (三)国际海洋法制度的发展导致中菲出现海洋划界争议
  69. 随着《公约》的制订和生效,中国和菲律宾之间的南海有关争议逐步激化。
  70. 基于中国人民和中国政府的长期历史实践及历届中国政府的一贯立场,根据国内法以及国际法,包括1958年《中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明》、1992年《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法》、1996年《中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于批准<联合国海洋法公约>的决定》、1998年《中华人民共和国专属经济区和大陆架法》和1982年《联合国海洋法公约》,中国南海诸岛拥有内水、领海、毗连区、专属经济区和大陆架。此外,中国在南海拥有历史性权利。
  71. 根据菲律宾1949年第387号共和国法案、1961年第3046号共和国法案、1968年第5446号共和国法案、1968年第370号总统公告、1978年第1599号总统令、2009年第9522号共和国法案等法律,菲律宾公布了内水、群岛水域、领海,专属经济区和大陆架。
  72. 在南海,中国的陆地领土海岸和菲律宾的陆地领土海岸相向,相距不足400海里。两国主张的海洋权益区域重叠,由此产生海洋划界争议。
  三、中菲已就解决南海有关争议达成共识
  73. 中国坚决捍卫对南海诸岛的主权,坚决反对菲律宾非法侵占中国岛礁,坚决反对菲律宾依据单方面主张在中国管辖海域采取侵权行为。同时,从维护南海和平稳定出发,中国保持高度克制,坚持和平解决中菲南海有关争议,并为此作出不懈努力。中国就管控海上分歧以及推动海上务实合作等与菲律宾进行多次磋商,双方就通过谈判解决南海有关争议,妥善管控有关分歧达成重要共识。
  (一)通过谈判解决南海有关争议是中菲共识和承诺
  74. 中国一贯致力于在相互尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处五项原则基础上与各国发展友好关系。
  75. 1975年6月,中菲关系实现正常化,两国在有关公报中明确指出,两国政府同意不诉诸武力,不以武力相威胁,和平解决所有争端。
  76. 实际上,中国在解决南海问题上的“搁置争议,共同开发”倡议,首先是对菲律宾提出的。1986年6月,中国领导人邓小平在会见菲律宾副总统萨尔瓦多·劳雷尔时,指出南沙群岛属于中国,同时针对有关分歧表示,“这个问题可以先搁置一下,先放一放。过几年后,我们坐下来,平心静气地商讨一个可为各方接受的方式。我们不会让这个问题妨碍与菲律宾和其他国家的友好关系”。1988年4月,邓小平在会见菲律宾总统科拉松·阿基诺时重申“对南沙群岛问题,中国最有发言权。南沙历史上就是中国领土,很长时间,国际上对此无异议”;“从两国友好关系出发,这个问题可先搁置一下,采取共同开发的办法”。此后,中国在处理南海有关争议及同南海周边国家发展双边关系问题上,一直贯彻了邓小平关于“主权属我,搁置争议,共同开发”的思想。
  77. 20世纪80年代以来,中国就通过谈判管控和解决中菲南海有关争议提出一系列主张和倡议,多次重申对南沙群岛的主权、和平解决南海有关争议的立场和“搁置争议,共同开发”的倡议,明确表示反对外部势力介入,反对南海问题国际化,强调不应使争议影响两国关系的发展。
  78. 1992年7月,在马尼拉举行的第25届东盟外长会议发表《东盟关于南海问题的宣言》。中国表示,赞赏这一宣言所阐述的相关原则。中国一贯主张通过谈判和平解决南沙群岛部分岛礁有关领土问题,反对诉诸武力,愿在条件成熟时同有关国家谈判“搁置争议,共同开发”。
  79. 1995年8月,中菲共同发表的《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国关于南海问题和其他领域合作的磋商联合声明》表示,“争议应由直接有关国家解决”;“双方承诺循序渐进地进行合作,最终谈判解决双方争议”。此后,中国和菲律宾通过一系列双边文件确认通过双边谈判协商解决南海问题的有关共识,例如:1999年3月《中菲建立信任措施工作小组会议联合公报》、2000年5月《中华人民共和国政府和菲律宾共和国政府关于21世纪双边合作框架的联合声明》等。
  80. 2002年11月,中国同东盟10国共同签署《宣言》。各方在《宣言》中郑重承诺:“根据公认的国际法原则,包括1982年《联合国海洋法公约》,由直接有关的主权国家通过友好磋商和谈判,以和平方式解决它们的领土和管辖权争议,而不诉诸武力或以武力相威胁。”
  81. 此后,中菲通过一系列双边文件确认各自在《宣言》中作出的郑重承诺,例如:2004年9月《中华人民共和国政府和菲律宾共和国政府联合新闻公报》、2011年9月《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国联合声明》等。
  82. 上述中菲两国各项双边文件以及《宣言》的相关规定,体现了中菲就解决南海有关争议达成的以下共识和承诺:一是有关争议应在直接有关的主权国家之间解决;二是有关争议应在平等和相互尊重基础上,通过谈判协商和平解决;三是直接有关的主权国家根据公认的国际法原则,包括1982年《联合国海洋法公约》,“最终谈判解决双方争议”。
  83. 中菲双方多次重申通过谈判解决有关争议,并多次强调有关谈判应由直接有关的主权国家开展,上述规定显然已产生排除任何第三方争端解决方式的效果。特别是1995年的联合声明规定“最终谈判解决双方争议”,这里的“最终”一词明显是为了强调“谈判”是双方已选择的唯一争端解决方式,并排除包括第三方争端解决程序在内的任何其他方式。上述共识和承诺构成两国间排除通过第三方争端解决方式解决中菲南海有关争议的协议。这一协议必须遵守。
  (二)妥善管控南海有关争议是中菲之间的共识
  84. 中国一贯主张,各方应通过制定规则、完善机制、务实合作、共同开发等方式管控争议,为南海有关争议的最终解决创造良好氛围。
  85. 自20世纪90年代以来,中菲就管控争议达成一系列共识:一是在有关争议问题上保持克制,不采取可能导致事态扩大化的行动;二是坚持通过双边磋商机制管控争议;三是坚持推动海上务实合作和共同开发;四是不使有关争议影响双边关系的健康发展和南海地区的和平与稳定。
  86. 中菲还在《宣言》中达成如下共识:保持自我克制,不采取使争议复杂化、扩大化和影响和平与稳定的行动;在和平解决领土和管辖权争议前,本着合作与谅解的精神,努力寻求各种途径建立互信;探讨或开展在海洋环保、海洋科学研究、海上航行和交通安全、搜寻与救助、打击跨国犯罪等方面的合作。
  87. 中菲曾就管控分歧、开展海上务实合作取得积极进展。
  88. 1999年3月,中国和菲律宾举行关于在南海建立信任措施工作小组首次会议,双方发表的《中菲建立信任措施工作小组会议联合公报》指出,“双方承诺根据广泛接受的国际法原则包括联合国海洋法公约,通过协商和平解决争议,……双方同意保持克制,不采取可能导致事态扩大化的行动。”
  89. 2001年4月,中菲发表的《第三次建立信任措施专家组会议联合新闻声明》指出,“双方认识到两国就探讨南海合作方式所建立的双边磋商机制是富有成效的,双方所达成的一系列谅解与共识对维护中菲关系的健康发展和南海地区的和平与稳定发挥了建设性作用。”
  90. 2004年9月,在中国和菲律宾领导人的共同见证下,中国海洋石油总公司和菲律宾国家石油公司签署《南中国海部分海域联合海洋地震工作协议》。经中菲双方同意,2005年3月,中国、菲律宾、越南三国国家石油公司签署《南中国海协议区三方联合海洋地震工作协议》,商定三国的石油公司在三年协议期内,在约14.3万平方千米海域的协议区内完成一定数量的二维和/或三维地震测线的采集和处理工作,对一定数量现有的二维地震测线进行再处理,研究评估协议区的石油资源状况。2007年《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国联合声明》表示,“双方认为,南海三方联合海洋地震工作可以成为本地区合作的一个示范。双方同意,可以探讨将下一阶段的三方合作提升到更高水平,以加强本地区建立互信的良好势头。”
  91. 令人遗憾的是,由于菲律宾方面缺乏合作意愿,中菲信任措施工作小组会议陷于停滞,中菲越三方联合海洋地震考察工作也未能继续。

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:57
  四、菲律宾一再采取导致争议复杂化的行动
  92. 自20世纪80年代以来,菲律宾一再采取导致争议复杂化的行动。
  (一)菲律宾企图扩大对中国南沙群岛部分岛礁的侵占
  93. 自20世纪80年代起,菲律宾就在非法侵占的中国南沙群岛有关岛礁上建设军事设施。90年代,菲律宾继续在非法侵占的中国南沙群岛有关岛礁修建机场和海空军基地,以非法侵占的中国南沙群岛中业岛为重点,持续在相关岛礁建设和修整机场、兵营、码头等设施,以方便起降重型运输机、战斗机及容纳更多更大的舰船。菲律宾还蓄意挑衅,频繁派出军舰、飞机侵入中国南沙群岛五方礁、仙娥礁、信义礁、半月礁和仁爱礁,肆意破坏中国设置的测量标志。
  94. 更有甚者,1999年5月9日,菲律宾派出57号坦克登陆舰入侵中国仁爱礁,并以“技术故障搁浅”为借口,在该礁非法“坐滩”。中国当即对菲律宾提出严正交涉,要求立即拖走该舰。而菲律宾却称该舰“缺少零部件”无法拖走。
  95. 就此,中国持续对菲律宾进行交涉,再三要求菲方拖走该舰。例如,1999年11月,中国驻菲律宾大使约见菲律宾外长西亚松和总统办公室主任来妮海索斯,再次就该舰非法“坐滩”仁爱礁事进行交涉。菲律宾虽然再三承诺将把该舰从仁爱礁撤走,但一直拖延不动。
  96. 2003年9月,得知菲律宾准备在仁爱礁非法“坐滩”的军舰周围修建设施后,中国当即提出严正交涉。菲律宾代理外长埃卜达林表示,菲律宾无意在仁爱礁上修建设施,菲律宾是《宣言》的签署者,不会也不愿成为第一个违反者。
  97. 但是菲律宾拒不履行拖走该舰的承诺,反而变本加厉,采取进一步挑衅行为。菲律宾于2013年2月在非法“坐滩”的该舰四周拉起固定缆绳,舰上人员频繁活动,准备建设固定设施。在中国多次交涉下,菲律宾国防部长加斯明声称,菲律宾只是在对该舰进行补给和修补,承诺不会在仁爱礁上修建设施。
  98. 2014年3月14日,菲律宾外交部发表声明,公然宣称菲律宾当年用57号坦克登陆舰在仁爱礁“坐滩”,就是为了“将该军舰作为菲律宾政府的永久设施部署在仁爱礁”,企图以此为借口,继续拒不履行拖走该舰的承诺,进而达到侵占仁爱礁的目的。中国当即对此表示震惊,并重申绝不允许菲方以任何形式侵占仁爱礁。
  99. 2015年7月,菲律宾公开声明,菲方正对在仁爱礁“坐滩”的军舰进行内部整固。
  100. 菲律宾用军舰“坐滩”仁爱礁,承诺拖走却始终食言,直至采取加固措施,以自己的实际行动证明菲律宾就是第一个公然违反《宣言》的国家。
  101. 长期以来,菲律宾非法侵占中国南沙群岛有关岛礁,并在岛礁上修筑各种军事设施,企图制造既成事实,长期霸占。菲律宾的所作所为,严重侵犯中国对南沙群岛有关岛礁的主权,严重违反《宪章》和国际法基本准则。
  (二)菲律宾一再扩大海上侵权
  102. 自20世纪70年代起,菲律宾依据其单方面主张,先后侵入中国南沙群岛礼乐滩、忠孝滩等地进行非法油气钻探,包括就有关区块进行对外招标。
  103. 进入21世纪以来,菲律宾扩大对外招标范围,大面积侵入中国南沙群岛有关海域。2003年,菲律宾将大片中国南沙群岛相关海域划为对外招标区块。2014年5月,菲律宾进行了第5轮油气招标,其中4个招标区块侵入中国南沙群岛相关海域。
  104. 菲律宾还不断侵入中国南沙群岛有关海域,袭扰中国渔民和渔船正常生产作业。据不完全统计,1989年至2015年,在上述海域共发生菲律宾非法侵犯中国渔民生命和财产安全事件97件,其中枪击8件,抢劫34件,抓扣40件,追赶15件;共涉及中国渔船近200艘,渔民上千人。菲律宾还野蛮、粗暴对待中国渔民,施以非人道待遇。
  105. 菲律宾武装人员经常无视中国渔民的生命安全,滥用武力。例如,2006年4月27日,菲律宾武装渔船侵入中国南沙群岛南方浅滩海域,袭击中国“琼琼海03012”号渔船,菲方一艘武装小艇及4名持枪人员向中国渔船靠近,并直接向渔船驾驶台连续开枪射击,造成陈奕超等4名渔民当场死亡、2人重伤、1人轻伤。随后,13名持枪人员强行登上渔船进行抢劫,劫走船上卫星导航、通讯设备、生产工具、渔获等。
  106. 菲律宾一再采取各种海上侵权行动,企图扩大其在南海的非法主张,严重侵犯中国在南海的主权及相关权益。菲律宾的侵权行为严重违背了其在《宣言》中关于保持自我克制,不采取使争议复杂化、扩大化行动的承诺。菲律宾枪击、抢劫中国渔船和渔民,非法抓扣中国渔民并施以非人道待遇,严重侵犯中国渔民的人身和财产安全以及人格尊严,公然践踏基本人权。
  (三)菲律宾企图染指中国黄岩岛
  107. 菲律宾还对中国黄岩岛提出领土要求并企图非法侵占。
  108. 黄岩岛是中国固有领土,中国持续、和平、有效地对黄岩岛行使着主权和管辖。
  109. 1997年之前,菲律宾从未对黄岩岛属于中国提出异议,从未对黄岩岛提出领土要求。1990年2月5日,菲律宾驻德国大使比安弗尼多致函德国无线电爱好者迪特表示:“根据菲律宾国家地图和资源信息局,斯卡伯勒礁或黄岩岛不在菲律宾领土主权范围以内。”
  110. 菲律宾国家地图和资源信息局1994年10月28日签发的《菲律宾共和国领土边界证明书》表示,“菲律宾共和国的领土边界和主权由1898年12月10日签署的《巴黎条约》第3条确定”,并确认“菲律宾环境和自然资源部通过国家地图和资源信息局发布的第25号官方地图中显示的领土界限完全正确并体现了真实状态”。如前所述,《巴黎条约》和另外两个条约确定了菲律宾的领土界限,中国黄岩岛明显位于这一界限以外。第25号官方地图反映了这一事实。在1994年11月18日致美国无线电协会的信中,菲律宾无线电爱好者协会写道,“一个非常重要的事实是,(菲律宾)有关政府机构申明,基于1898年12月10日签署的《巴黎条约》第3条,斯卡伯勒礁就是位于菲律宾领土边界之外。”
  111. 1997年4月,菲律宾一改其领土范围不包括黄岩岛的立场,对中国无线电运动协会组织的国际联合业余无线电探险队在黄岩岛的探险活动进行跟踪、监视和干扰,甚至不顾历史事实,声称黄岩岛在菲律宾主张的200海里专属经济区内,因此是菲律宾领土。对此,中国曾多次向菲律宾提出交涉,明确指出,黄岩岛是中国固有领土,菲律宾的主张是无理、非法和无效的。
  112. 2009年2月17日,菲律宾国会通过9522号共和国法案,非法将中国黄岩岛和南沙群岛部分岛礁划为菲律宾领土。就此,中国即向菲律宾进行交涉并发表声明,重申中国对黄岩岛和南沙群岛及其附近海域的主权,任何其他国家对黄岩岛和南沙群岛的岛屿提出领土主权要求,都是非法的、无效的。
  113. 2012年4月10日,菲律宾出动“德尔·皮拉尔”号军舰,闯入中国黄岩岛附近海域,对在该海域作业的中国渔民、渔船实施非法抓扣并施以严重非人道待遇,蓄意挑起黄岩岛事件。中国即在北京和马尼拉多次对菲律宾提出严正交涉,对菲律宾侵犯中国领土主权和伤害中国渔民的行径表示强烈抗议,要求菲律宾立即撤出一切船只和人员。与此同时,中国政府迅速派出海监和渔政执法船只前往黄岩岛,维护主权并对中国渔民进行救助。2012年6月,经中国多次严正交涉,菲律宾从黄岩岛撤出相关船只和人员。
  114. 菲律宾对中国黄岩岛提出的非法领土要求没有任何国际法依据。所谓黄岩岛在菲律宾200海里专属经济区内因而是菲律宾领土的主张,显然是对国际法蓄意和荒唐的歪曲。菲律宾派军舰武装闯入黄岩岛附近海域,严重侵犯中国领土主权,严重违背《宪章》和国际法基本原则。菲律宾鼓动并怂恿菲方船只和人员大规模侵入中国黄岩岛海域,严重侵犯中国在黄岩岛海域的主权和主权权利。菲律宾非法抓扣在黄岩岛海域正常作业的中国渔民并施以严重的非人道待遇,严重侵犯中国渔民的人格尊严,践踏人权。

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:57
  (四)菲律宾单方面提起仲裁是恶意行为
  115. 2013年1月22日,菲律宾共和国时任政府违背中菲之间达成并多次确认的通过谈判解决南海有关争议的共识,违反其在《宣言》中作出的庄严承诺,在明知领土争议不属于《公约》调整范围,海洋划界争议已被中国2006年有关声明排除的情况下,蓄意将有关争议包装成单纯的《公约》解释或适用问题,滥用《公约》争端解决机制,单方面提起南海仲裁案。菲律宾此举不是为了解决与中国的争议,而是企图借此否定中国在南海的领土主权和海洋权益。菲律宾的行为是恶意的。
  116. 第一,菲律宾单方面提起仲裁,违反中菲通过双边谈判解决争议的协议。中菲在有关双边文件中已就通过谈判解决南海有关争议达成协议并多次予以确认。中国和菲律宾在《宣言》中就通过谈判解决南海有关争议作出郑重承诺,并一再在双边文件中予以确认。上述中菲两国各项双边文件以及《宣言》的相关规定相辅相成,构成中菲两国之间的协议。两国据此选择了以谈判方式解决有关争端,并排除了包括仲裁在内的第三方方式。“约定必须遵守”。这项国际法基础规范必须得到执行。菲律宾违背自己的庄严承诺,是严重的背信弃义行为,不为菲律宾创设任何权利,也不为中国创设任何义务。
  117. 第二,菲律宾单方面提起仲裁,侵犯中国作为《公约》缔约国自主选择争端解决方式的权利。《公约》第十五部分第280条规定,“本公约的任何规定均不损害任何缔约国于任何时候协议用自行选择的任何和平方法解决它们之间有关本公约的解释或适用的争端的权利”;第281条规定,“作为有关本公约的解释或适用的争端各方的缔约各国,如已协议用自行选择的和平方法来谋求解决争端,则只有在诉诸这种方法仍未得到解决以及争端各方间的协议并不排除任何其他程序的情形下,才适用本部分所规定的程序”。由于中菲之间已就通过谈判解决争议作出明确选择,《公约》规定的第三方强制争端解决程序不适用。
  118. 第三,菲律宾单方面提起仲裁,滥用《公约》争端解决程序。菲律宾提起仲裁事项的实质是南沙群岛部分岛礁的领土主权问题,有关事项也构成中菲海洋划界不可分割的组成部分。陆地领土问题不属于《公约》的调整范围。2006年,中国根据《公约》第298条作出排除性声明,将涉及海洋划界、历史性海湾或所有权、军事和执法行动等方面的争端排除在《公约》争端解决程序之外。包括中国在内的约30个国家作出的排除性声明,构成《公约》争端解决机制的组成部分。菲律宾通过包装诉求,恶意规避中方有关排除性声明和陆地领土争议不属《公约》调整事项的限制,单方面提起仲裁,构成对《公约》争端解决程序的滥用。
  119. 第四,菲律宾为推动仲裁捏造事实,曲解法律,编造了一系列谎言:
  ——菲律宾明知其仲裁诉求涉及中国在南海的领土主权,领土问题不属于《公约》调整的事项,却故意将其曲解和包装成《公约》解释或适用问题;
  ——菲律宾明知其仲裁诉求涉及海洋划界问题,且中国已根据《公约》第298条作出声明,将包括海洋划界在内的争端排除出《公约》规定的第三方争端解决程序,却故意将海洋划界过程中需要考虑的各项因素抽离出来,孤立看待,企图规避中国有关排除性声明;
  ——菲律宾无视中菲从未就其仲裁事项进行任何谈判的事实,故意将其与中国就一般性海洋事务与合作进行的一些磋商曲解为就仲裁事项进行的谈判,并以此为借口声称已穷尽双边谈判手段;
  ——菲律宾声称其不寻求判定任何领土归属,或划定任何海洋边界,然而在仲裁进程中,特别是庭审中,却屡屡否定中国在南海的领土主权和海洋权益;
  ——菲律宾无视中国在南海问题上的一贯立场和实践,子虚乌有地声称中国对整个南海主张排他性的海洋权益;
  ——菲律宾刻意夸大西方殖民者历史上在南海的作用,否定中国长期开发、经营和管辖南海相关水域的史实及相应的法律效力;
  ——菲律宾牵强附会,拼凑关联性和证明力不强的证据,强撑其诉讼请求;
  ——菲律宾随意解释国际法规则,大量援引极具争议的司法案例和不具权威性的个人意见支撑其诉求。
  120. 简言之,菲律宾单方面提起仲裁违反包括《公约》争端解决机制在内的国际法。应菲律宾单方面请求建立的南海仲裁案仲裁庭自始无管辖权,所作出的裁决是无效的,没有拘束力。中国在南海的领土主权和海洋权益在任何情况下不受仲裁裁决的影响。中国不接受、不承认该裁决,反对且不接受任何以仲裁裁决为基础的主张和行动。
  五、中国处理南海问题的政策
  121. 中国是维护南海和平稳定的重要力量。中国一贯遵守《宪章》的宗旨和原则,坚定维护和促进国际法治,尊重和践行国际法,在坚定维护中国在南海的领土主权和海洋权益的同时,坚持通过谈判协商解决争议,坚持通过规则机制管控分歧,坚持通过互利合作实现共赢,致力于把南海建设成和平之海、友谊之海和合作之海。
  122. 中国坚持与地区国家共同维护南海和平稳定,坚定维护各国依据国际法在南海享有的航行和飞越自由,积极倡导域外国家尊重地区国家的努力,在维护南海和平稳定问题上发挥建设性作用。
  (一)关于南沙群岛领土问题
  123. 中国坚定地维护对南海诸岛及其附近海域的主权。部分国家对南沙群岛部分岛礁提出非法领土主张并实施武力侵占,严重违反《宪章》和国际关系基本准则,是非法的、无效的。对此,中国坚决反对,并要求有关国家停止对中国领土的侵犯。
  124. 中国始终致力于与包括菲律宾在内的直接有关的当事国在尊重历史事实的基础上,根据国际法,通过谈判解决有关争议。
  125. 众所周知,陆地领土问题不属于《公约》调整的事项。因此,南沙群岛领土问题不适用《公约》。
  (二)关于南海海洋划界问题
  126. 中国主张,同直接有关的当事国依据包括《公约》在内的国际法,通过谈判公平解决南海海洋划界问题。在划界问题最终解决前,各方应保持自我克制,不采取使争议复杂化、扩大化和影响和平与稳定的行动。
  127. 1996年,中国在批准《公约》时声明:“中华人民共和国将与海岸相向或相邻的国家,通过协商,在国际法基础上,按照公平原则划定各自海洋管辖权界限。”1998年,《中华人民共和国专属经济区和大陆架法》进一步明确中国同海洋邻国之间解决海洋划界问题的原则立场,即“中华人民共和国与海岸相邻或者相向国家关于专属经济区和大陆架的主张重叠的,在国际法的基础上按照公平原则以协议划定界限”,“本法的规定不影响中华人民共和国享有的历史性权利”。
  128. 中国不接受任何企图通过单方面行动把海洋管辖权强加于中国的做法,也不认可任何有损于中国在南海海洋权益的行动。
  (三)关于争端解决方式
  129. 基于对国际实践的深刻认识和中国自身丰富的国家实践,中国坚信,要解决任何国家间争议,无论选择哪种机制和方式,都不能违背主权国家的意志,应以国家同意为基础。
  130. 在领土和海洋划界问题上,中国不接受任何强加于中国的争端解决方案,不接受任何诉诸第三方的争端解决方式。2006年8月25日,中国根据《公约》第298条的规定向联合国秘书长提交声明,称“关于《公约》第二百九十八条第1款(a)、(b)、(c)项所述的任何争端,中华人民共和国政府不接受《公约》第十五部分第二节规定的任何程序”,明确将涉及海洋划界、历史性海湾或所有权、军事和执法活动,以及联合国安全理事会执行《宪章》所赋予的职务等争端排除在《公约》强制争端解决程序之外。
  131. 中华人民共和国成立以来,已与14个陆地邻国中的12个国家,本着平等协商、相互谅解的精神,通过双边谈判,签订了边界条约,划定和勘定的边界约占中国陆地边界长度的90%。中国与越南已通过谈判划定了两国在北部湾的领海、专属经济区和大陆架界限。中国对通过谈判解决争议的诚意和不懈努力是有目共睹的。不言而喻,谈判是国家意志的直接体现。谈判当事方直接参与形成最终结果。实践表明,谈判取得的成果更容易获得当事国人民的理解和支持,能够得到有效实施,并具有持久生命力。只有当事方通过平等谈判达成协议,有关争议才能获得根本长久解决,有关协议才能得到全面有效贯彻实施。
  (四)关于在南海管控分歧和开展海上务实合作
  132. 根据国际法和国际实践,在海洋争议最终解决前,当事国应保持克制,尽一切努力作出实际性的临时安排,包括建立和完善争议管控规则和机制,开展各领域合作,推动“搁置争议,共同开发”,维护南海地区的和平稳定,为最终解决争议创造条件。有关合作和共同开发不妨害最后界限的划定。
  133. 中国积极推动与有关国家建立双边海上磋商机制,探讨在渔业、油气等领域的共同开发,倡议有关各国积极探讨根据《公约》有关规定,建立南海沿岸国合作机制。
  134. 中国始终致力于与东盟国家一道全面有效落实《宣言》,积极推动海上务实合作,已取得了包括建立“中国-东盟国家海上联合搜救热线平台”、“中国-东盟国家应对海上紧急事态外交高官热线平台”以及“中国-东盟国家海上联合搜救沙盘推演”等“早期收获”成果。
  135. 中国始终坚持倡导各方在全面有效落实《宣言》框架下,积极推进“南海行为准则”磋商,争取在协商一致基础上早日达成“准则”。为在“准则”最终达成前妥善管控海上风险,中国提议探讨制定“海上风险管控预防性措施”,并获得东盟国家一致认同。
  (五)关于南海航行自由和安全
  136. 中国一贯致力于维护各国根据国际法所享有的航行和飞越自由,维护海上通道的安全。
  137. 南海拥有众多重要的航行通道,有关航道也是中国对外贸易和能源进口的主要通道之一,保障南海航行和飞越自由,维护南海海上通道的安全对中国十分重要。长期以来,中国致力于和东盟国家共同保障南海航道的畅通和安全,并作出重大贡献。各国在南海依据国际法享有的航行和飞越自由不存在任何问题。
  138. 中国积极提供国际公共产品,通过各项能力建设,努力向国际社会提供包括导航助航、搜寻救助、海况和气象预报等方面的服务,以保障和促进南海海上航行通道的安全。
  139. 中国主张,有关各方在南海行使航行和飞越自由时,应充分尊重沿岸国的主权和安全利益,并遵守沿岸国按照《公约》规定和其他国际法规则制定的法律和规章。
  (六)关于共同维护南海和平稳定
  140. 中国主张,南海和平稳定应由中国和东盟国家共同维护。
  141. 中国坚持走和平发展道路,坚持防御性的国防政策,坚持互信、互利、平等、协作的新安全观,坚持与邻为善、以邻为伴的周边外交方针和睦邻、安邻、富邻的周边外交政策,践行亲、诚、惠、容周边外交理念。中国是维护南海和平稳定、推动南海合作和发展的坚定力量。中国致力于深化周边睦邻友好,积极推动与周边国家以及东盟等地区组织的务实合作,实现互利共赢。
  142. 南海既是沟通中国与周边国家的桥梁,也是中国与周边国家和平、友好、合作和发展的纽带。南海和平稳定与地区国家的安全、发展和繁荣息息相关,与地区各国人民的福祉息息相关。实现南海地区的和平稳定和繁荣发展是中国和东盟国家的共同愿望和共同责任,符合各国的共同利益。
  143. 中国愿继续为此作出不懈努力。

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:59
Full Text: China Adheres to the Position of Settling Through Negotiation the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea

source:http://www.scio.gov.cn/32618/Document/1483578/1483578.htm
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China on July 13 published a white paper titled "China Adheres to the Position of Settling Through Negotiation the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea".
Following is the full text of the white paper:
China Adheres to the Position of Settling Through Negotiation
the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines
in the South China Sea
Contents
Introduction
I. Nanhai Zhudao are China's Inherent Territory
i. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is established in the course of history
ii. China has always been resolute in upholding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea
iii. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is widely acknowledged in the international community
II. Origin of the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea
i. The Philippines' invasion and illegal occupation caused disputes with China over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao
ii. The Philippines' illegal claim has no historical or legal basis
iii. The development of the international law of the sea gave rise to the dispute between China and the Philippines over maritime delimitation
III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea
i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea
ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea
IV. The Philippines Has Repeatedly Taken Moves that Complicate the Relevant Disputes
i. The Philippines attempts to entrench its illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao
ii. The Philippines has increasingly intensified its infringement of China's maritime rights and interests
iii. The Philippines also has territorial pretensions on China's Huangyan Dao
iv. The Philippines' unilateral initiation of arbitration is an act of bad faith
V. China's Policy on the South China Sea Issue
i. On the territorial issues concerning Nansha Qundao
ii. On maritime delimitation in the South China Sea
iii. On the ways and means of dispute settlement
iv. On managing differences and engaging in practical maritime cooperation in the South China Sea
v. On freedom and safety of navigation in the South China Sea
vi. On jointly upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea
Introduction
1. Situated to the south of China's mainland, and connected by narrow straits and waterways with the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Indian Ocean to the west, the South China Sea is a semi-closed sea extending from northeast to southwest. To its north are the mainland and Taiwan Dao of China, to its south Kalimantan Island and Sumatra Island, to its east the Philippine Islands, and to its west the Indo-China Peninsula and the Malay Peninsula.
2. China's Nanhai Zhudao (the South China Sea Islands) consist of Dongsha Qundao (the Dongsha Islands), Xisha Qundao (the Xisha Islands), Zhongsha Qundao (the Zhongsha Islands) and Nansha Qundao (the Nansha Islands). These Islands include, among others, islands, reefs, shoals and cays of various numbers and sizes. Nansha Qundao is the largest in terms of both the number of islands and reefs and the geographical area.
3. The activities of the Chinese people in the South China Sea date back to over 2,000 years ago. China is the first to have discovered, named, and explored and exploited Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters, and the first to have continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction over them. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea have been established in the long course of history, and are solidly grounded in history and law.
4. As neighbors facing each other across the sea, China and the Philippines have closely engaged in exchanges, and the two peoples have enjoyed friendship over generations. There had been no territorial or maritime delimitation disputes between the two states until the 1970s when the Philippines started to invade and illegally occupy some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao, creating a territorial issue with China over these islands and reefs. In addition, with the development of the international law of the sea, a maritime delimitation dispute also arose between the two states regarding certain maritime areas of the South China Sea.
5. China and the Philippines have not yet had any negotiation designed to settle their relevant disputes in the South China Sea. However, the two countries did hold multiple rounds of consultations on the proper management of disputes at sea and reached consensus on resolving through negotiation and consultation the relevant disputes, which has been repeatedly reaffirmed in a number of bilateral documents. The two countries have also made solemn commitment to settling relevant disputes through negotiation and consultation in the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) that China and the ASEAN Member States jointly signed.
6. In January 2013, the then government of the Republic of the Philippines turned its back on the above-mentioned consensus and commitment, and unilaterally initiated the South China Sea arbitration. The Philippines deliberately mischaracterized and packaged the territorial issue which is not subject to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the maritime delimitation dispute which has been excluded from the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures by China's 2006 optional exceptions declaration pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS. This act is a wanton abuse of the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures. In doing so, the Philippines attempts to deny China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.
7. This paper aims to clarify the facts and tell the truth behind the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea, and to reaffirm China's consistent position and policy on the South China Sea issue, in order to get to the root of the issue and set the record straight.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:00
I. Nanhai Zhudao are China's Inherent Territory
i. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is established in the course of history
8. The Chinese people have since ancient times lived and engaged in production activities on Nanhai Zhudao and in relevant waters. China is the first to have discovered, named, and explored and exploited Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters, and the first to have continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction over them, thus establishing sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and the relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea.
9. As early as the 2nd century BCE in the Western Han Dynasty, the Chinese people sailed in the South China Sea and discovered Nanhai Zhudao in the long course of activities.
10. A lot of Chinese historical literatures chronicle the activities of the Chinese people in the South China Sea. These books include, among others, Yi Wu Zhi (An Account of Strange Things) published in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), Fu Nan Zhuan (An Account of Fu Nan) during the period of the Three Kingdoms (220-280), Meng Liang Lu (Record of a Daydreamer) and Ling Wai Dai Da (Notes for the Land beyond the Passes) in the Song Dynasty (960-1279), Dao Yi Zhi Lüe (A Brief Account of the Islands) in the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Dong Xi Yang Kao (Studies on the Oceans East and West) and Shun Feng Xiang Song (Fair Winds for Escort) in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and Zhi Nan Zheng Fa (Compass Directions) and Hai Guo Wen Jian Lu (Records of Things Seen and Heard about the Coastal Regions) in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). These books also record the geographical locations and geomorphologic characteristics of Nanhai Zhudao as well as hydrographical and meteorological conditions of the South China Sea. These books record vividly descriptive names the Chinese people gave to Nanhai Zhudao, such as "Zhanghaiqitou" (twisted atolls on the rising sea), "Shanhuzhou" (coral cays), "Jiuruluozhou" (nine isles of cowry), "Shitang" (rocky reefs), "Qianlishitang" (thousand-li rocky reefs), "Wanlishitang" (ten thousand-li rocky reefs), "Changsha" (long sand cays), "Qianlichangsha" (thousand-li sand cays), and "Wanlichangsha" (ten thousand-li sand cays).
11. The Chinese fishermen have developed a relatively fixed naming system for the various components of Nanhai Zhudao in the long process of exploration and exploitation of the South China Sea. Under this system, islands and shoals have become known as "Zhi"; reefs "Chan", "Xian", or "Sha"; atolls "Kuang", "Quan" or "Tang"; and banks "Shapai". Geng Lu Bu (Manual of Sea Routes), a kind of navigation guidebook for Chinese fishermen's journeys between the coastal regions of China's mainland and Nanhai Zhudao, came into being and circulation in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and has been handed down in various editions and versions of handwritten copies and is still in use even today. It shows that the Chinese people lived and carried out production activities on, and how they named Nanhai Zhudao. Geng Lu Bu records names for at least 70 islands, reefs, shoals and cays of Nansha Qundao. Some were named after compass directions in Chinese renditions, such as Chouwei (Zhubi Jiao) and Dongtou Yixin (Pengbo Ansha); some were named after local aquatic products in the surrounding waters such as Chigua Xian (Chigua Jiao, "chigua" means "red sea cucumber") and Mogua Xian (Nanping Jiao, "mogua" means "black sea cucumber"); some were named after their shapes, such as Niaochuan (Xian'e Jiao, "niaochuan" means "bird string") and Shuangdan (Xinyi Jiao, "shuangdan" means "shoulder poles"); some were named after physical objects, such as Guogai Zhi (Anbo Shazhou, "guogai" means "pot cover") and Chenggou Zhi (Jinghong Dao, "chenggou" means "steelyard hook"); still some were named after waterways such as Liumen Sha (Liumen Jiao, "liumen" means "six doorways").
12. Some of the names given by the Chinese people to Nanhai Zhudao were adopted by Western navigators and marked in some authoritative navigation guidebooks and charts published in the 19th and 20th centuries. For instance, Namyit (Hongxiu Dao), Sin Cowe (Jinghong Dao) and Subi (Zhubi Jiao) originate from "Nanyi", "Chenggou" and "Chouwei" as pronounced in Hainan dialects.
13. Numerous historical documents and objects prove that the Chinese people have explored and exploited in a sustained way Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters. Starting from the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chinese fishermen sailed southward on the northeasterly monsoon to Nansha Qundao and relevant waters for fishery production activities and returned on the southwesterly monsoon to the mainland the following year. Some of them lived on the islands for years, going for fishing, digging wells for fresh water, cultivating land and farming, building huts and temples, and raising livestock. Chinese and foreign historical literature as well as archaeological finds show that there were crops, wells, huts, temples, tombs and tablet inscriptions left by Chinese fishermen on some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao.
14. Many foreign documents also recorded the fact that during a long period of time only Chinese lived and worked on Nansha Qundao.
15. The China Sea Directory published in 1868 by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty of the United Kingdom, when referring to Zhenghe Qunjiao of Nansha Qundao, observed that "Hainan fishermen, who subsist by collecting trepang and tortoise-shell, were found upon most of these islands, some of whom remain for years amongst the reefs", and that "[t]he fishermen upon Itu-Aba island [Taiping Dao] were more comfortably established than the others, and the water found in the well on that island was better than elsewhere." The China Sea Directory published in 1906 and The China Sea Pilot in its 1912, 1923 and 1937 editions made in many parts explicit records of the Chinese fishermen living and working on Nansha Qundao.
16. The French magazine Le Monde Colonial Illustré published in September 1933 contains the following records: Only Chinese people (Hainan natives) lived on the nine islands of Nansha Qundao and there were no people from other countries. Seven were on Nanzi Dao (South West Cay), two of them were children. Five lived on Zhongye Dao (Thitu Island); four lived on Nanwei Dao (Spratly Island), one person more over that of 1930. There were worship stands, thatched cottages and wells left by the Chinese on Nanyao Dao (Loaita Island). No one was sighted on Taiping Dao (Itu Aba Island), but a tablet scripted with Chinese characters was found, which said that, in that magazine's rendition, "Moi, Ti Mung, patron de jonque, suis venu ici à la pleine lune de mars pour vous porter des aliments. Je n'ai trouvé personne, je laisse le riz à l'abri des pierres et je pars." Traces were also found of fishermen living on the other islands. This magazine also records that there are abundant vegetation, wells providing drinking water, coconut palms, banana trees, papaya trees, pineapples, green vegetables and potatoes as well as poultry on Taiping Dao, Zhongye Dao, Nanwei Dao and other islands, and that these islands are habitable.
17. Japanese literature Boufuu No Shima (Stormy Island) published in 1940 as well as The Asiatic Pilot, Vol. IV, published by the United States Hydrographic Office in 1925 also have accounts about Chinese fishermen who lived and worked on Nansha Qundao.
18. China is the first to have continuously exercised authority over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant maritime activities. In history, China has exercised jurisdiction in a continuous, peaceful and effective manner over Nanhai Zhudao and in relevant waters through measures such as establishment of administrative setups, naval patrols, resources development, astronomical observation and geographical survey.
19. For instance, in the Song Dynasty, China established a post of Jing Lüe An Fu Shi (Imperial Envoy for Management and Pacification) in the regions now known as Guangdong and Guangxi to govern the southern territory. It is mentioned in Zeng Gongliang's Wujing Zongyao (Outline Record of Military Affairs) that, in order to strengthen defense in the South China Sea, China established naval units to conduct patrols therein. In the Qing Dynasty, Ming Yi's Qiongzhou Fuzhi (Chronicle of Qiongzhou Prefecture), Zhong Yuandi's Yazhou Zhi (Chronicle of Yazhou Prefecture) and others all listed "Shitang" and "Changsha" under the items of "maritime defense".
20. Many of China's local official records, such as Guangdong Tong Zhi (General Chronicle of Guangdong), Qiongzhou Fu Zhi (Chronicle of Qiongzhou Prefecture) and Wanzhou Zhi (Chronicle of Wanzhou), contain in the section on "territory" or "geography, mountains and waters" a statement that "Wanzhou covers 'Qianlichangsha' and 'Wanlishitang'" or something similar.
21. The successive Chinese governments have marked Nanhai Zhudao as Chinese territory on official maps, such as the 1755 Tian Xia Zong Yu Tu (General Map of Geography of the All-under-heaven) of the Huang Qing Ge Zhi Sheng Fen Tu (Map of the Provinces Directly under the Imperial Qing Authority), the 1767 Da Qing Wan Nian Yi Tong Tian Xia Tu (Map of the Eternally Unified All-under-heaven of the Great Qing Empire), the 1810 Da Qing Wan Nian Yi Tong Di Li Quan Tu (Map of the Eternally Unified Great Qing Empire) and the 1817 Da Qing Yi Tong Tian Xia Quan Tu (Map of the Unified All-under-heaven of the Great Qing Empire).
22. Historical facts show that the Chinese people have all along taken Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters as a ground for living and production, where they have engaged in exploration and exploitation activities in various forms. The successive Chinese governments have exercised jurisdiction over Nanhai Zhudao in a continuous, peaceful and effective manner. In the course of history, China has established sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea. The Chinese people have long been the master of Nanhai Zhudao.
ii. China has always been resolute in upholding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea
23. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao had never been challenged before the 20th century. When France and Japan invaded and illegally occupied by force some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao in the 1930s and 1940s, the Chinese people rose to fight back strenuously and the Chinese government took a series of measures to defend China's sovereignty over Nansha Qundao.
24. In 1933, France invaded some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and declared "occupation" of them in an announcement published in Journal Officiel, creating the "Incident of the Nine Islets". The French aggression triggered strong reactions and large scale protests from all walks of life across China. The Chinese fishermen living on Nansha Qundao also took on-site resistance against the French aggression. Chinese fishermen Fu Hongguang, Ke Jiayu, Zheng Landing and others cut down the posts flying French flags on Taiping Dao, Beizi Dao, Nanwei Dao, Zhongye Dao and others.
25. Shortly after this Incident happened, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs made clear through its spokesperson, referring to the relevant islands of Nansha Qundao, that "no other people but Chinese fishermen live on the islands and they are recognized internationally as Chinese territory". The Chinese government made strong representations to the French government against its aggression. And in response to the French attempt to trick Chinese fishermen into hanging French flags, the government of Guangdong Province instructed that administrators of all counties should issue public notice forbidding all Chinese fishing vessels operating in Nansha Qundao and relevant waters from hanging foreign flags, and Chinese national flags were distributed to them to be hung on Chinese fishing vessels.
26. China's Committee for the Examination for the Land and Sea Maps, which was composed of representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of the Navy and other institutions, reviewed and approved the names of individual islands, reefs, banks and shoals of Nanhai Zhudao, compiled and published Zhong Guo Nan Hai Ge Dao Yu Tu (Map of the South China Sea Islands of China) in 1935.
27. Japan invaded and illegally occupied Nanhai Zhudao during its war of aggression against China. The Chinese people fought heroically against the Japanese aggression. With the advance of the World's Anti-Fascist War and the Chinese People's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, China, the United States and the United Kingdom solemnly demanded in the Cairo Declaration in December 1943 that all the territories Japan had stolen from the Chinese shall be restored to China. In July 1945, China, the United States and the United Kingdom issued the Potsdam Proclamation. That Proclamation explicitly declares in Article 8: "The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out."
28. In August 1945, Japan announced its acceptance of the Potsdam Proclamation and its unconditional surrender. In November and December 1946, the Chinese government dispatched Colonel Lin Zun and other senior military and civil officials to Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao to resume exercise of authority over these Islands, with commemorative ceremonies held, sovereignty markers re-erected, and troops garrisoned. These officials arrived at these islands on four warships, namely Yongxing, Zhongjian, Taiping and Zhongye. Subsequently, the Chinese government renamed four islands of Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao after the names of those four warships.
29. In March 1947, the Chinese government established on Taiping Dao Nansha Qundao Office of Administration and placed it under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province. China also set up a meteorological station and a radio station on Taiping Dao, which started broadcasting meteorological information in June of that year.
30. On the basis of a new round of geographical survey of Nanhai Zhudao, the Chinese government commissioned in 1947 the compilation of Nan Hai Zhu Dao Di Li Zhi Lüe (A Brief Account of the Geography of the South China Sea Islands), reviewed and approved Nan Hai Zhu Dao Xin Jiu Ming Cheng Dui Zhao Biao (Comparison Table on the Old and New Names of the South China Sea Islands), and drew Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Location Map of the South China Sea Islands) on which the dotted line is marked. In February 1948, the Chinese government officially published Zhong Hua Min Guo Xing Zheng Qu Yu Tu (Map of the Administrative Districts of the Republic of China) including Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Location Map of the South China Sea Islands).
31. In June 1949, the Chinese government promulgated Hai Nan Te Qu Xing Zheng Zhang Guan Gong Shu Zu Zhi Tiao Li (Regulations on the Organization of the Office of the Chief Executive of the Hainan Special District), which placed Hainan Dao, Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and some other islands under the jurisdiction of the Hainan Special District.
32. Since its founding on 1 October 1949, the People's Republic of China has repeatedly reiterated and further upheld its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea by measures such as adopting legislations, establishing administration and making diplomatic representations. China has never ceased carrying out activities such as patrolling and law enforcement, resources development and scientific survey on Nanhai Zhudao and in the South China Sea.
33. In August 1951, Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai, in his Statement on the United States-British Draft Peace Treaty with Japan and the San Francisco Conference, pointed out that "as a matter of fact, just like all the Nan Sha Islands, Chung Sha Islands and Tung Sha Islands, Si Sha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nan Wei Island (Spratly Island) have always been China's territory, occupied by Japan for some time during the war of aggression waged by Japanese imperialism, they were all taken over by the then Chinese Government, following Japan's surrender", "Whether or not the United States-British Draft Treaty contains provisions on this subject and no matter how these provisions are worded, the inviolable sovereignty of the People's Republic of China over Nan Wei Island (Spratly Island) and Si Sha Islands (the Paracel Islands) will not be in any way affected."
34. In September 1958, China promulgated the Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China on China's Territorial Sea, explicitly providing that the breadth of China's territorial sea shall be twelve nautical miles, that the straight baselines method shall be employed to determine the baselines of territorial sea and that such provisions shall apply to all territories of the People's Republic of China, including "Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and all the other islands belonging to China".
35. In March 1959, the Chinese government set up, on Yongxing Dao of Xisha Qundao, the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao. In March 1969, the Office was renamed the Revolutionary Committee of Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao and Nansha Qundao of Guangdong Province. In October 1981, the name of the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao was restored.
36. In April 1983, China Committee on Geographical Names was authorized to publish 287 standard geographical names for part of Nanhai Zhudao.
37. In May 1984, the Sixth National People's Congress decided at its Second Session to establish the Hainan Administrative District with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant maritime areas, among others.
38. In April 1988, the Seventh National People's Congress decided at its First Session to establish Hainan Province with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant maritime areas, among others.
39. In February 1992, China promulgated the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, establishing China's basic system of territorial sea and contiguous zone. This Law explicitly states: "The land territory of the People's Republic of China includes […] Dongsha Qundao; Xisha Qundao; Zhongsha Qundao; Nansha Qundao; as well as all the other islands belonging to the People's Republic of China." In May 1996, the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress made the decision at its Nineteenth Session to ratify UNCLOS, and at the same time declared that, "The People's Republic of China reaffirms its sovereignty over all its archipelagoes and islands as listed in Article 2 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone which was promulgated on 25 February 1992."
40. In May 1996, the Chinese government announced the baselines of the part of the territorial sea adjacent to the mainland which are composed of all the straight lines joining the 49 adjacent base points from Gaojiao of Shandong to Junbijiao of Hainan Dao, as well as the baselines of the territorial sea adjacent to Xisha Qundao which are composed of all the straight lines joining the 28 adjacent base points, and declared it would announce the remaining baselines of the territorial sea at another time.
41. In June 1998, China promulgated the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf, establishing China's basic system of exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. This Law explicitly states: "The provisions in this Law shall not affect the historic rights that the People's Republic of China enjoys."
42. In June 2012, the State Council approved the abolition of the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the simultaneous establishment of prefecture-level Sansha City with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant waters.
43. China attaches great importance to ecological and fishery resource preservation in the South China Sea. In 1999, China began to enforce summer fishing moratorium in the South China Sea and has done so since that time. By the end of 2015, China had established six national aquatic biological nature reserves and six such reserves at provincial level, covering a total area of 2.69 million hectares, as well as seven national aquatic germplasm resources conservation areas with a total area of 1.28 million hectares.
44. Since the 1950s, the Taiwan authorities of China have maintained a military presence on Taiping Dao of Nansha Qundao. For a long time, they have also maintained civil service and administration bodies and carried out natural resources development on the island.
iii. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is widely acknowledged in the international community
45. After the end of the Second World War, China recovered and resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao. Many countries recognize that Nanhai Zhudao are part of China's territory.
46. In 1951, it was decided at the San Francisco Peace Conference that Japan would renounce all right, title and claim to Nansha Qundao and Xisha Qundao. In 1952, the Japanese government officially stated that it had renounced all right, title, and claim to Taiwan, Penghu, as well as Nansha Qundao and Xisha Qundao. In the same year, Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao, which Japan renounced under the San Francisco Peace Treaty, together with Dongsha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao, were all marked as belonging to China on the 15th map, Southeast Asia, of the Standard World Atlas recommended by the then Japanese Foreign Minister Katsuo Okazaki with his signature.
47. In October 1955, the International Civil Aviation Organization held a conference in Manila, which was attended by representatives from the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines, the authorities from South Vietnam and China's Taiwan authorities. The Filipino and French representatives served as chair and vice chair respectively. It was requested in Resolution No. 24 adopted at the conference that China's Taiwan authorities should enhance meteorological observation on Nansha Qundao, and no opposition or reservation was registered.
48. On 4 September 1958, the Chinese government promulgated the Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China on China's Territorial Sea, proclaiming a twelve-nautical-mile territorial sea breadth, and stipulating that, "This provision applies to all territories of the People's Republic of China, including [...] Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao, and all other islands belonging to China." On 14 September, Prime Minister Pham Van Dong of the Vietnamese government sent a diplomatic note to Zhou Enlai, Premier of the State Council of China, solemnly stating that "the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam recognizes and supports the declaration of the government of the People's Republic of China on its decision concerning China's territorial sea made on 4 September 1958" and "the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam respects this decision."
49. In August 1956, First Secretary Donald E. Webster of the United States institution in Taiwan made an oral request to China's Taiwan authorities for permission for the United States military personnel to conduct geodetic survey in Huangyan Dao, Shuangzi Qunjiao, Jinghong Dao, Hongxiu Dao and Nanwei Dao of Zhongsha Qundao and Nansha Qundao. China's Taiwan authorities later approved the above request.
50. In December 1960, the United States government sent a letter to China's Taiwan authorities to "request permission be granted" for its military personnel to carry out survey at Shuangzi Qunjiao, Jinghong Dao and Nanwei Dao of Nansha Qundao. China's Taiwan authorities approved this application.
51. In 1972, Japan reiterated its adherence to the terms of Article 8 of the Potsdam Proclamation in the Joint Communiqué of the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of Japan.
52. It was reported by AFP that, on 4 February 1974, the then Indonesian Foreign Minister Adam Malik stated that, "si nous regardons les cartes actuelles, elles montrent que les deux archipels des Paracels [Xisha Qundao] et des Spratleys [Nansha Qundao] appartiennent à la Chine", and that because we recognize the existence of only one China, "cela signifie que, pour nous, ces archipels appartiennent à la République populaire de Chine".
53. The 14th Assembly of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, held from 17 March to 1 April 1987, deliberated on the Global Sea-Level Observing System Implementation Plan 1985-1990 (IOC/INF-663 REV) submitted by the Commission's Secretariat. The Plan integrated Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao into the Global Sea-Level Observing System, and explicitly listed these two Islands under "People's Republic of China". For the implementation of this Plan, the Chinese government was commissioned to build five marine observation stations, including one on Nansha Qundao and one on Xisha Qundao.
54. Nanhai Zhudao have long been widely recognized by the international community as part of China's territory. The encyclopedias, yearbooks and maps published in many countries mark Nansha Qundao as belonging to China. For example this is done in, among others, the 1960 Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations by the Worldmark Press published in the United States, the 1966 New China Yearbook by the Far Eastern Booksellers published in Japan; the Welt-Atlas published in 1957, 1958 and 1961 in the Federal Republic of Germany, the 1958 Atlas Zur Erd-Und Länderkunde and the 1968 Haack Großer Weltatlas published in the German Democratic Republic, the Atlas Mira from 1954 to 1959 and the 1957 Administrativno-territorialnoe Delenie Zarubezhnyh Stran published in the Soviet Union, the 1959 Világatlasz and the 1974 Képes Politikai és Gazdasági Világatlasz published in Hungary, the 1959 Malý Atlas Sv?ta published in Czechoslovakia, the 1977 Atlas Geografic Scolar published in Romania, the 1965 Atlas international Larousse politique et économique, the 1969 Atlas moderne Larousse published by Libraire Larousse in France, the maps in the 1972 and 1983 World Encyclopedia, the 1985 Grand Atlas World by Heibon Sha, and the 1980 Sekai to Sono Kunikuni published by Japan Geographic Data Center in Japan.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:00
II. Origin of the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea
55. The core of the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea lies in the territorial issues caused by the Philippines' invasion and illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao. In addition, with the development of the international law of the sea, a maritime delimitation dispute also arose between the two states regarding certain sea areas of the South China Sea.
i. The Philippines' invasion and illegal occupation caused disputes with China over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao
56. The territory of the Philippines is defined by a series of international treaties, including the 1898 Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain (the Treaty of Paris), the 1900 Treaty between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain for Cession of Outlying Islands of the Philippines (the Treaty of Washington), and the 1930 Convention between His Majesty in Respect of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States regarding the Boundary between the State of North Borneo and the Philippine Archipelago.
57. The Philippines' territory so defined has nothing to do with China's Nanhai Zhudao.
58. In the 1950s, the Philippines attempted to take moves on China's Nansha Qundao but eventually stopped because of China's firm opposition. In May 1956, Tomás Cloma, a Filipino, organized a private expedition to some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and unlawfully named them "Freedomland". Afterwards, Philippine Vice President and Foreign Minister Carlos Garcia expressed support for Cloma's activities. In response, the spokesperson of the Chinese Foreign Ministry issued a stern statement on 29 May, pointing out that Nansha Qundao "has always been a part of China's territory. The People's Republic of China has indisputable sovereignty over these islands [...] and will never tolerate the infringement of its sovereignty by any country with any means and under any excuse." At the same time, China's Taiwan authorities sent troops to patrol Nansha Qundao and resumed stationing troops on Taiping Dao. Afterward, the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs said that the government of the Philippines did not know about Cloma's activities or give him the consent before he took his moves.
59. Starting in the 1970s, the Philippines invaded and illegally occupied by force some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao and raised illegal territorial claims. The Philippines invaded and illegally occupied Mahuan Dao and Feixin Dao in August and September 1970, Nanyao Dao and Zhongye Dao in April 1971, Xiyue Dao and Beizi Dao in July 1971, Shuanghuang Shazhou in March 1978 and Siling Jiao in July 1980. In June 1978, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1596, which designated some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao and large areas of their surrounding waters as "Kalayaan Island Group" ("Kalayaan" in Tagalog means "Freedom"), set up "Municipality of Kalayaan" and illegally included them in the Philippine territory.
60. The Philippines has also enacted a series of national laws to lay its own claims of territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, part of which conflicted with China's maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.
61. The Philippines has concocted many excuses to cover up its invasion and illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao in order to pursue its territorial pretensions. For instance, it claims that: "Kalayaan Island Group" is not part of Nansha Qundao but terra nullius; Nansha Qundao became "trust territory" after the end of the Second World War; the Philippines has occupied Nansha Qundao because of "contiguity or proximity" and out of "national security" considerations; "some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao are located in the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Philippines"; the Philippines' "effective control" over the relevant islands and reefs has become the "status quo" that cannot be changed.
ii. The Philippines' illegal claim has no historical or legal basis
62. The Philippines' territorial claim over part of Nansha Qundao is groundless from the perspectives of either history or international law.
63. First, Nansha Qundao has never been part of the Philippine territory. The territorial scope of the Philippines has already been defined by a series of international treaties. The United States, administrator of the Philippines at the relevant time, was clearly aware of these facts. On 12 August 1933, ex-Senator Isabelo de los Reyes of the United States-governed Philippines wrote a letter to Governor-General Frank Murphy in an attempt to claim that some Nansha islands formed part of the Philippine Archipelago on the ground of geographical proximity. That letter was referred to the Department of War and the Department of State. On 9 October, the United States Secretary of State replied that, "These islands [...] lie at a considerable distance outside the limits of the Philippine Islands which were acquired from Spain in 1898". In May 1935, the United States Secretary of War George Dern wrote a letter to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, seeking the views of the State Department on the "validity and propriety" of the Philippines' territorial claims over some islands of Nansha Qundao. A memorandum of the Office of Historical Adviser in the State Department, signed by S.W. Boggs, pointed out that, "There is, of course, no basis for a claim on the part of the United States, as islands constituting part of the Philippine Archipelago". On 20 August, Secretary Hull officially replied in writing to Secretary Dern, stating that, "the islands of the Philippine group which the United States acquired from Spain by the treaty of 1898, were only those within the limits described in Article III", and that, referring to the relevant Nansha islands, "It may be observed that [...] no mention has been found of Spain having exercised sovereignty over, or having laid claim to, any of these islands". All these documents prove that the Philippines' territory never includes any part of Nanhai Zhudao, a fact that has been recognized by the international community, including the United States.
64. Second, the claim that "Kalayaan Island Group" is "terra nullius" discovered by the Philippines is groundless. The Philippines claims that its nationals "discovered" the islands in 1956, and uses this as an excuse to single out some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao and name them "Kalayaan Island Group". This is an attempt to create confusion over geographical names and concepts, and dismember China's Nansha Qundao. As a matter of fact, the geographical scope of Nansha Qundao is clear, and the so-called "Kalayaan Island Group" is part of China's Nansha Qundao. Nansha Qundao has long been an integral part of China's territory and is by no means "terra nullius".
65. Third, Nansha Qundao is not "trust territory" either. The Philippines claims that after the Second World War, Nansha Qundao became "trust territory", the sovereignty over which was undetermined. This claim finds no support in law or reality. The post-War trust territories were all specifically listed in relevant international treaties or the documents of the United Nations Trusteeship Council. Nansha Qundao was never included in them and was thus not trust territory at all.
66. Fourth, neither "contiguity or proximity" nor national security is a basis under international law for acquiring territory. Many countries have territories far away from their metropolitan areas, in some cases even very close to the shores of other countries. When exercising colonial rule over the Philippines, the United States had a dispute with the Netherlands regarding sovereignty over an island which is close to the Philippine Archipelago, and the United States' claim on the basis of contiguity was ruled as having no foundation in international law. Furthermore, it is just absurd to invade and occupy the territory of other countries on the ground of national security.
67. Fifth, the Philippines claims that some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao are located within its exclusive economic zone and continental shelf and therefore should fall under its sovereignty or form part of its continental shelf. This is an attempt to use maritime jurisdiction provided for under UNCLOS to deny China's territorial sovereignty. This runs directly counter to the "land dominates the sea" principle, and goes against the purpose of UNCLOS, as stated in its preamble, to "establish [...] with due regard for the sovereignty of all States, a legal order for the seas and ocean". Therefore, a coastal state can only claim maritime jurisdiction under the precondition of respecting the territorial sovereignty of another state. No state can extend its maritime jurisdiction to an area under the sovereignty of another; still less can it use such jurisdiction as an excuse to deny another state's sovereignty or even to infringe upon its territory.
68. Sixth, the Philippines' so-called "effective control" on the basis of its illegal seizure is null and void. The international community does not recognize "effective control" created through occupation by force. The Philippines' "effective control" is mere occupation by naked use of force of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao. Such occupation violates the Charter of the United Nations and the basic norms governing international relations and is unequivocally prohibited by international law. This so-called "effective control" based on illegal seizure cannot change the basic fact that Nansha Qundao is China's territory. China firmly opposes any attempt to treat the seizure of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao as a so-called "fait accompli" or "status quo". China will never recognize such a thing.
iii. The development of the international law of the sea gave rise to the dispute between China and the Philippines over maritime delimitation
69. With the formulation and entering into effect of UNCLOS, the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea have gradually intensified.
70. Based on the practice of the Chinese people and the Chinese government in the long course of history and the position consistently upheld by successive Chinese governments, and pursuant to China's national law and under international law, including the 1958 Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China on China's Territorial Sea, the 1992 Law of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, the 1996 Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on the Ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the 1998 Law of the People's Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf, and the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, China has, based on Nanhai Zhudao, internal waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. In addition, China has historic rights in the South China Sea.
71. The Philippines proclaimed its internal waters, archipelagic waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf according to, among others, the Philippines' Republic Act No. 387 of 1949, Republic Act No. 3046 of 1961, Republic Act No. 5446 and Presidential Proclamation No. 370 of 1968, Presidential Decree No. 1599 of 1978, and Republic Act No. 9522 of 2009.
72. In the South China Sea, China and the Philippines are states possessing land territory with opposite coasts, the distance between which is less than 400 nautical miles. The maritime areas claimed by the two states overlap, giving rise to a dispute over maritime delimitation.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:01
III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea
73. China firmly upholds its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao, resolutely opposes the Philippines' invasion and illegal occupation of China's islands and reefs, and resolutely opposes the unilateral acts taken by the Philippines on the pretext of enforcing its own claims to infringe China's rights and interests in waters under China's jurisdiction. Still, in the interest of sustaining peace and stability in the South China Sea, China has exercised great restraint, stayed committed to peacefully settling the disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea, and made tireless efforts to this end. China has conducted consultations with the Philippines on managing maritime differences and promoting practical maritime cooperation, and the two sides have reached important consensus on settling through negotiation relevant disputes in the South China Sea and properly managing relevant disputes.
i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea
74. China has dedicated itself to fostering friendly relations with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, namely, mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.
75. In June 1975, China and the Philippines normalized their relations, and in the joint communiqué for that purpose, the two governments agreed to settle all disputes by peaceful means without resorting to the threat or use of force.
76. In fact, China's initiative of "pursuing joint development while shelving disputes" regarding the South China Sea issue was first addressed to the Philippines. In a June 1986 meeting with Philippine Vice President Salvador Laurel, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping pointed out that Nansha Qundao belongs to China, and when referring to the matter of differences, stated that, "This issue can be shelved for now. Several years later, we can sit down and work out a solution that is acceptable to all in a calm manner. We shall not let this issue stand in the way of our friendly relations with the Philippines and with other countries." In April 1988, when meeting with Philippine President Corazón Aquino, Deng Xiaoping reiterated that "with regard to the issue concerning Nansha Qundao, China has the biggest say. Nansha Qundao has been part of China's territory throughout history, and no one has ever expressed objection to this for quite some time"; and "For the sake of the friendship between our two countries, we can shelve the issue for now and pursue joint development". Since then, when handling the relevant South China Sea issue and developing bilateral ties with other littoral countries around the South China Sea, China has all along acted in keeping with Deng Xiaoping's idea: "sovereignty belongs to China, disputes can be shelved, and we can pursue joint development".
77. Since the 1980s, China has put forward a series of proposals and initiatives for managing and settling through negotiation disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea and reiterated repeatedly its sovereignty over Nansha Qundao, its position on peacefully settling the relevant disputes and its initiative of "pursuing joint development while shelving disputes". China has expressed its clear opposition to intervention by outside forces and attempts to multilateralize the South China Sea issue and emphasized that the relevant disputes should not affect bilateral relations.
78. In July 1992, the 25th ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting held in Manila adopted the ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea. China expressed appreciation for relevant principles outlined in that Declaration. China stated that it has all along stood for peacefully settling through negotiation the territorial issues relating to part of Nansha Qundao and opposed the use of force, and is ready to enter into negotiation with countries concerned on implementing the principle of "pursuing joint development while shelving disputes" when conditions are ripe.
79. In August 1995, China and the Philippines issued the Joint Statement between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines concerning Consultations on the South China Sea and on Other Areas of Cooperation in which they agreed that "[d]isputes shall be settled by the countries directly concerned" and that "a gradual and progressive process of cooperation shall be adopted with a view to eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes." Subsequently, China and the Philippines reaffirmed their consensus on settling the South China Sea issue through bilateral negotiation and consultation in a number of bilateral documents, such as the March 1999 Joint Statement of the China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures and the May 2000 Joint Statement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines on the Framework of Bilateral Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century.
80. In November 2002, China and the ten ASEAN Member States signed the DOC in which the parties solemnly "undertake to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, without resorting to the threat or use of force, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea".
81. Afterwards, China and the Philippines reaffirmed this solemn commitment they had made in the DOC in a number of bilateral documents, such as the September 2004 Joint Press Statement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the September 2011 Joint Statement between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines.
82. The relevant provisions in all the aforementioned bilateral instruments and the DOC embody the following consensus and commitment between China and the Philippines on settling the relevant disputes in the South China Sea: first, the relevant disputes shall be settled between sovereign states directly concerned; second, the relevant disputes shall be peacefully settled through negotiation and consultation on the basis of equality and mutual respect; and third, sovereign states directly concerned shall "eventually negotiat[e] a settlement of the bilateral disputes" in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UNCLOS.
83. By repeatedly reaffirming negotiations as the means for settling relevant disputes, and by repeatedly emphasizing that negotiations be conducted by sovereign states directly concerned, the above-mentioned provisions obviously have produced the effect of excluding any means of third party settlement. In particular, the 1995 Joint Statement provides for "eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes". The term "eventually" in this context clearly serves to emphasize that "negotiations" is the only means the parties have chosen for dispute settlement, to the exclusion of any other means including third party settlement procedures. The above consensus and commitment constitutes an agreement between the two states excluding third-party dispute settlement as a way to settle relevant disputes in the South China Sea between China and the Philippines. This agreement must be observed.
ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea
84. It is China's consistent position that, the relevant parties should establish and improve rules and mechanisms, and pursue practical cooperation and joint development, so as to manage disputes in the South China Sea, and to foster a good atmosphere for their final resolution.
85. Since the 1990s, China and the Philippines have reached the following consensus on managing their disputes: first, they will exercise restraint in handling relevant disputes and refrain from taking actions that may lead to an escalation; second, they will stay committed to managing disputes through bilateral consultation mechanisms; third, they commit themselves to pursuing practical maritime cooperation and joint development; and fourth, the relevant disputes should not affect the healthy growth of bilateral relations and peace and stability in the South China Sea region.
86. In the DOC, China and the Philippines also reached the following consensus: to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability; to intensify efforts, pending the peaceful settlement of territorial and jurisdictional disputes, to seek ways, in the spirit of cooperation and understanding, to build trust and confidence; and to explore or undertake cooperative activities including marine environmental protection, marine scientific research, safety of navigation and communication at sea, search and rescue operation and combating transnational crime.
87. China and the Philippines have made some progress in managing their differences and conducting practical maritime cooperation.
88. During the first China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures held in March 1999, the two sides issued a joint statement, pointing out that, "the two sides agreed that the dispute should be peacefully settled through consultation in accordance with the generally-accepted principles of international law including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, [... and to] exercise self-restraint and not to take actions that might escalate the situation."
89. In the Joint Press Statement of the Third China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures released in April 2001, it is stated that, "the two sides noted that the bilateral consultation mechanism to explore ways of cooperation in the South China Sea has been effective. The series of understanding and consensus reached by the two sides have played a constructive role in the maintenance of the sound development of China-Philippines relations and peace and stability of the South China Sea area."
90. In September 2004, in the presence of the leaders of China and the Philippines, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) and Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) signed the Agreement for Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking in Certain Areas in the South China Sea. In March 2005, national oil companies from China, the Philippines and Vietnam signed, with the consent of both China and the Philippines, the Tripartite Agreement for Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking in the Agreement Area in the South China Sea. It was agreed that during an agreement term of three year-period, these oil companies should collect and process certain amount of 2D and/or 3D seismic lines in the agreement area covering about 143,000 square kilometers, re-process certain amount of existing 2D seismic lines, and study and assess the oil resources in the area. The 2007 Joint Statement of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines states that, "both sides agree that the tripartite joint marine seismic undertaking in the South China Sea serves as a model for cooperation in the region. They agreed that possible next steps for cooperation among the three parties should be explored to bring collaboration to a higher level and increase the momentum of trust and confidence in the region."
91. Regrettably, due to the lack of willingness for cooperation from the Philippine side, the China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures has stalled, and the China-Philippines-Vietnam tripartite marine seismic undertaking has failed to move forward.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:03
IV. The Philippines Has Repeatedly Taken Moves that Complicate the Relevant Disputes
92. Since the 1980s, the Philippines has repeatedly taken moves that complicate the relevant disputes.
i. The Philippines attempts to entrench its illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao
93. In China's Nansha Qundao, the Philippines started in the 1980s to build military facilities on some islands and reefs it has invaded and illegally occupied. In the 1990s, the Philippines continued to build airfields and naval and air force facilities on these illegally-occupied islands and reefs; centered on Zhongye Dao, the construction has extended to other islands and reefs, with runways, military barracks, docks and other facilities built and renovated, so as to accommodate heavy transport planes, fighter jets and more and larger vessels. Furthermore, the Philippines made deliberate provocations by frequently sending its military vessels and aircraft to intrude into Wufang Jiao, Xian'e Jiao, Xinyi Jiao, Banyue Jiao and Ren'ai Jiao of China's Nansha Qundao, and destroyed survey markers set up by China.
94. Still worse, on 9 May 1999, the Philippines sent BRP Sierra Madre (LT-57), a military vessel, to intrude into China's Ren'ai Jiao and illegally ran it aground on the pretext of "technical difficulties". China immediately made solemn representations to the Philippines, demanding the immediate removal of that vessel. But the Philippines claimed that the vessel could not be towed away for "lack of parts".
95. Over this matter, China has repeatedly made representations to the Philippines and renewed the same demand. For instance, in November 1999, the Chinese Ambassador to the Philippines met with Secretary of Foreign Affairs Domingo Siazon and Chief of the Presidential Management Staff Leonora de Jesus to make another round of representations. Many times the Philippines promised to tow away the vessel, but it has taken no action.
96. In September 2003, upon the news that the Philippines was preparing to build facilities around that military vessel illegally run aground at Ren'ai Jiao, China lodged immediate representations. The Philippine Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs Franklin Ebdalin responded that the Philippines had no intention to construct facilities on Ren'ai Jiao and that, as a signatory to the DOC, the Philippines had no desire to and would not be the first to violate the Declaration.
97. But the Philippines did not fulfill its undertaking to tow away that vessel. Instead, it made even worse provocations. In February 2013, cables were lined up around that grounded vessel and people on board bustled around, making preparations for the construction of permanent facilities. In response to China's repeated representations, the Philippine Secretary of National Defense Voltaire Gazmin claimed that the Philippines was simply resupplying and repairing the vessel, and promised that no facilities would be built on Ren'ai Jiao.
98. On 14 March 2014, the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs issued a statement openly declaring that the vessel it ran aground at Ren'ai Jiao was placed there as a permanent Philippine government installation. This was an apparent attempt to provide an excuse for its continued refusal to fulfill its undertaking to tow away that vessel in order to illegally seize Ren'ai Jiao. China immediately responded that it was shocked by this statement and reiterated that it would never allow the Philippines to seize Ren'ai Jiao by any means.
99. In July 2015, the Philippines stated publicly that the so-called maintenance repair was being done to fortify the vessel.
100. To sum up, by running aground its military vessel at Ren'ai Jiao, then promising repeatedly to tow it away but breaking that promise repeatedly and even fortifying it, the Philippines has proven itself to be the first to openly violate the DOC.
101. Over the years, the Philippines has invaded and illegally occupied some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao and constructed various military facilities thereupon in an attempt to establish a fait accompli of permanent occupation. These moves have grossly violated China's sovereignty over the relevant islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and violated the Charter of the United Nations and basic norms of international law.
ii. The Philippines has increasingly intensified its infringement of China's maritime rights and interests
102. Since the 1970s, the Philippines, asserting its unilateral claims, has intruded into, among others, the maritime areas of Liyue Tan and Zhongxiao Tan of China's Nansha Qundao to carry out illegal oil and gas exploratory drilling, including listing the relevant blocks for bidding.
103. Since 2000, the Philippines has expanded the areas for bidding, intruding into larger sea areas of China's Nansha Qundao. A large span of sea areas of China's Nansha Qundao was designated as bidding blocks by the Philippines in 2003. During the fifth "Philippine Energy Contracting Round" launched in May 2014, four of the bidding blocks on offer reached into relevant sea areas of China's Nansha Qundao.
104. The Philippines has repeatedly intruded into relevant waters of China's Nansha Qundao, harassing and attacking Chinese fishermen and fishing boats conducting routine fishing operations. Currently available statistics show that from 1989 to 2015, 97 incidents occurred in which the Philippines infringed upon the safety, life and property of Chinese fishermen: 8 involving shooting, 34 assault and robbery, 40 capture and detention, and 15 chasing. These incidents brought adverse consequences to close to 200 Chinese fishing vessels and over 1,000 Chinese fishermen. In addition, the Philippines treated Chinese fishermen in a violent, cruel and inhumane manner.
105. Philippine armed personnel often use excessive force against Chinese fishermen in utter disregard of the safety of their lives. For example, on 27 April 2006, one armed Philippine fishing vessel intruded into Nanfang Qiantan of China's Nansha Qundao and attacked Chinese fishing boat Qiongqionghai 03012. One Philippine armed motor boat carrying four gunmen approached that Chinese fishing boat. Immediately these gunmen fired several rounds of bullets at the driving panel, killing Chen Yichao and three other Chinese fishermen on the spot, severely wounding two others and causing minor injuries to another. Subsequently a total of 13 gunmen forced their way onboard the Chinese fishing boat and seized satellite navigation and communication equipment, fishing equipment and harvests and other items.
106. The Philippines has repeatedly infringed China's maritime rights and interests in an attempt to expand and entrench its illegal claims in the South China Sea. These actions have grossly violated China's sovereignty and rights and interests in the South China Sea. By doing so, the Philippines has seriously violated its own commitment made under the DOC to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes. By firing upon Chinese fishing boats and fishermen, illegally seizing and detaining Chinese fishermen, giving them inhumane treatment and robbing them of their property, the Philippines has gravely infringed upon the personal and property safety and the dignity of Chinese fishermen and blatantly trampled on their basic human rights.
iii. The Philippines also has territorial pretensions on China's Huangyan Dao
107. The Philippines also has territorial pretensions on China's Huangyan Dao and attempted to occupy it illegally.
108. Huangyan Dao is China's inherent territory, over which China has continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction.
109. Before 1997, the Philippines had never challenged China's sovereignty over Huangyan Dao, nor had it laid any territorial claim to it. On 5 February 1990, Philippine Ambassador to Germany Bienvenido A. Tan, Jr. stated in a letter to German HAM radio amateur Dieter Löffler that, "According to the Philippine National Mapping and Resource Information Authority, the Scarborough Reef or Huangyan Dao does not fall within the territorial sovereignty of the Philippines."
110. A "Certification of Territorial Boundary of the Republic of the Philippines", issued by the Philippine National Mapping and Resource Information Authority on 28 October 1994, stated that "the territorial boundaries and sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines are established in Article III of the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898", and confirmed that the "Territorial Limits shown in the official Map No. 25 issued by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources through the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority, are fully correct and show the actual status". As described above, the Treaty of Paris and other two treaties define the territorial limits of the Philippines, and China's Huangyan Dao clearly lies outside those limits. Philippine Official Map No. 25 reflects this. In a letter dated 18 November 1994 to the American Radio Relay League, Inc., the Philippine Amateur Radio Association, Inc. wrote that, "one very important fact remains, the national agency concerned had stated that based on Article III of the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898, Scarborough Reef lies just outside the territorial boundaries of the Philippines".
111. In April 1997, the Philippines turned its back on its previous position that Huangyan Dao is not part of the Philippine territory. The Philippines tracked, monitored and disrupted an international radio expedition on Huangyan Dao organized by the Chinese Radio Sports Association. In disregard of historical facts, the Philippines laid its territorial claim to Huangyan Dao on the grounds that it is located within the 200-nautical-mile exclusive economic zone claimed by the Philippines. In this regard, China made representations several times to the Philippines, pointing out explicitly that Huangyan Dao is China's inherent territory and that the Philippines' claim is groundless, illegal and void.
112. On 17 February 2009, the Philippine Congress passed Republic Act No. 9522. That act illegally includes into the Philippines' territory China's Huangyan Dao and some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao. China immediately made representations to the Philippines and issued a statement, reiterating China's sovereignty over Huangyan Dao, Nansha Qundao and the adjacent waters, and declaring in explicit terms that any territorial claim over them made by any other country is illegal and void.
113. On 10 April 2012, the Philippines' naval vessel BRP Gregorio del Pilar (PF-15) intruded into the adjacent waters of China's Huangyan Dao, illegally seized Chinese fishermen and fishing boats operating there and treated the fishermen in a grossly inhumane manner, thus deliberately causing the Huangyan Dao Incident. In response to the Philippines' provocation, China immediately made multiple strong representations to Philippine officials in Beijing and Manila to protest the Philippines' violation of China's territorial sovereignty and harsh treatment of Chinese fishermen, and demanded that the Philippines immediately withdraw all its vessels and personnel. The Chinese government also promptly dispatched China Maritime Surveillance and China Fisheries Law Enforcement vessels to Huangyan Dao to protect China's sovereignty and rescue the Chinese fishermen. In June 2012, after firm representations repeatedly made by China, the Philippines withdrew relevant vessels and personnel from Huangyan Dao.
114. The Philippines' claim of sovereignty over China's Huangyan Dao is completely baseless under international law. The illegal claim that "Huangyan Dao is within the Phlippines' 200-nautical-mile exclusive economic zone so it is Philippine territory" is a preposterous and deliberate distortion of international law. By sending its naval vessel to intrude into Huangyan Dao's adjacent waters, the Philippines grossly violated China's territorial sovereignty, the Charter of the United Nations and fundamental principles of international law. By instigating mass intrusion of its vessels and personnel into waters of Huangyan Dao, the Philippines blatantly violated China's sovereignty and sovereign rights therein. The Philippines' illegal seizure of Chinese fishermen engaged in normal operations in waters of Huangyan Dao and the subsequent inhumane treatment of them are gross violations of their dignity and human rights.
iv. The Philippines' unilateral initiation of arbitration is an act of bad faith
115. On 22 January 2013, the then government of the Republic of the Philippines unilaterally initiated the South China Sea arbitration. In doing so, the Philippines has turned its back on the consensus reached and repeatedly reaffirmed by China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation the relevant disputes in the South China Sea and violated its own solemn commitment in the DOC. Deliberately packaging the relevant disputes as mere issues concerning the interpretation or application of UNCLOS while knowing full well that territorial disputes are not subject to UNCLOS and that maritime delimitation disputes have been excluded from the UNCLOS compulsory dispute settlement procedures by China's 2006 declaration, the Philippines has wantonly abused the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures. This initiation of arbitration aims not to settle its disputes with China, but to deny China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea. This course of conduct is taken out of bad faith.
116. First, by unilaterally initiating arbitration, the Philippines has violated its standing agreement with China to settle the relevant disputes through bilateral negotiation. In relevant bilateral documents, China and the Philippines have agreed to settle through negotiation their disputes in the South China Sea and reaffirmed this agreement many times. China and the Philippines made solemn commitment in the DOC to settle through negotiation relevant disputes in the South China Sea, which has been repeatedly affirmed in bilateral documents. The above bilateral documents between China and the Philippines and relevant provisions in the DOC are mutually reinforcing and constitute an agreement in this regard between the two states. By this agreement, they have chosen to settle the relevant disputes through negotiation and to exclude any third party procedure, including arbitration. Pacta sunt servanda. This fundamental norm of international law must be observed. The Philippines' breach of its own solemn commitment is a deliberate act of bad faith. Such an act does not generate any right for the Philippines, nor does it impose any obligation on China.
117. Second, by unilaterally initiating arbitration, the Philippines has violated China's right to choose means of dispute settlement of its own will as a state party to UNCLOS. Article 280 of Part XV of UNCLOS stipulates: "Nothing in this Part impairs the right of any States Parties to agree at any time to settle a dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention by any peaceful means of their own choice." Article 281 of UNCLOS provides: "If the States Parties which are parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention have agreed to seek settlement of the dispute by a peaceful means of their own choice, the procedures provided for in this Part apply only where no settlement has been reached by recourse to such means and the agreement between the parties does not exclude any further procedure". Given that China and the Philippines have made an unequivocal choice to settle through negotiation the relevant disputes, the compulsory third-party dispute settlement procedures under UNCLOS do not apply.
118. Third, by unilaterally initiating arbitration, the Philippines has abused the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures. The essence of the subject-matter of the arbitration initiated by the Philippines is an issue of territorial sovereignty over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao, and the resolution of the relevant matters also constitutes an integral part of maritime delimitation between China and the Philippines. Land territorial issues are not regulated by UNCLOS. In 2006, pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS, China made an optional exceptions declaration excluding from the compulsory dispute settlement procedures of UNCLOS disputes concerning, among others, maritime delimitation, historic bays or titles, military and law enforcement activities. Such declarations made by about 30 states, including China, form an integral part of the UNCLOS dispute settlement mechanism. By camouflaging its submissions, the Philippines deliberately circumvented the optional exceptions declaration made by China and the limitation that land territorial disputes are not subject to UNCLOS, and unilaterally initiated the arbitration. This course of conduct constitutes an abuse of the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures.
119. Fourth, in order to push forward the arbitral proceedings, the Philippines has distorted facts, misinterpreted laws and concocted a pack of lies:
— The Philippines, fully aware that its submissions concern China's territorial sovereignty in the South China Sea, and that territorial issue is not subject to UNCLOS, deliberately mischaracterizes and packages the relevant issue as those concerning the interpretation or application of UNCLOS;
— The Philippines, fully aware that its submissions concern maritime delimitation, and that China has made an declaration, pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS, excluding disputes concerning, among others, maritime delimitation from the UNCLOS third-party dispute settlement procedures, intentionally detaches the diverse factors that shall be taken into consideration in the process of a maritime delimitation and treat them in an isolated way, in order to circumvent China's optional exceptions declaration;
— The Philippines deliberately misrepresents certain consultations with China on maritime affairs and cooperation, all of a general nature, as negotiations over the subject-matters of the arbitration, and further claims that bilateral negotiations therefore have been exhausted, despite the fact that the two states have never engaged in any negotiation on those subject-matters;
— The Philippines claims that it does not seek a determination of any territorial issue or a delimitation of any maritime boundary, and yet many times in the course of the arbitral proceedings, especially during the oral hearings, it denies China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea;
— The Philippines turns a blind eye to China's consistent position and practice on the South China Sea issue, and makes a completely false assertion that China lays an exclusive claim of maritime rights and interests to the entire South China Sea;
— The Philippines exaggerates Western colonialists' role in the South China Sea in history and denies the historical facts and corresponding legal effect of China's longstanding exploration, exploitation and administration in history of relevant waters of the South China Sea;
— The Philippines puts together some remotely relevant and woefully weak pieces of evidence and makes far-fetched inferences to support its submissions;
— The Philippines, in order to make out its claims, arbitrarily interprets rules of international law, and resorts to highly controversial legal cases and unauthoritative personal opinions in large quantity.
120. In short, the Philippines' unilateral initiation of arbitration contravenes international law including the UNCLOS dispute settlement mechanism. The Arbitral Tribunal in the South China Sea arbitration established at the Philippines' unilateral request has, ab initio, no jurisdiction, and awards rendered by it are null and void and have no binding force. China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea shall under no circumstances be affected by those awards. China does not accept or recognize those awards. China opposes and will never accept any claim or action based on those awards.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:04
V. China's Policy on the South China Sea Issue
121. China is an important force for maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea. It abides by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and is committed to upholding and promoting international rule of law. It respects and acts in accordance with international law. While firmly safeguarding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, China adheres to the position of settling disputes through negotiation and consultation and managing differences through rules and mechanisms. China endeavors to achieve win-win outcomes through mutually beneficial cooperation, and is committed to making the South China Sea a sea of peace, cooperation and friendship.
122. China is committed to maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea with other countries in the region and upholding the freedom of navigation and overflight in the South China Sea enjoyed by other countries under international law. China urges countries outside this region to respect the efforts in this regard by countries in the region and to play a constructive role in maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea.
i. On the territorial issues concerning Nansha Qundao
123. China is firm in upholding its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and their surrounding waters. Some countries have made illegal territorial claims over and occupied by force some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao. These illegal claims and occupation constitute gross violations of the Charter of the United Nations and basic norms governing international relations. They are null and void. China consistently and resolutely opposes such actions and demands that relevant states stop their violation of China's territory.
124. China has spared no efforts to settle, on the basis of respecting historical facts, relevant disputes with the Philippines and other countries directly concerned, through negotiation in accordance with international law.
125. It is universally recognized that land territorial issues are not regulated by UNCLOS. Thus, the territorial issue in Nansha Qundao is not subject to UNCLOS.
ii. On maritime delimitation in the South China Sea
126. China maintains that the issue of maritime delimitation in the South China Sea should be settled equitably through negotiation with countries directly concerned in accordance with international law, including UNCLOS. Pending the final settlement of this issue, all relevant parties must exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that may complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability.
127. When ratifying UNCLOS in 1996, China stated that, "The People's Republic of China will effect, through consultations, the delimitation of the boundary of the maritime jurisdiction with the States with coasts opposite or adjacent to China respectively on the basis of international law and in accordance with the principle of equitability." China's positions in this regard are further elaborated in the 1998 Law of the People's Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf. This Law provides that, "The People's Republic of China shall determine the delimitation of its exclusive economic zone and continental shelf in respect of the overlapping claims by agreement with the states with opposite or adjacent coasts, in accordance with the principle of equitability and on the basis of international law", and that, "The provisions in this law shall not affect the historical rights that the People's Republic of China has been enjoying ever since the days of the past".
128. China does not accept any unilateral action attempting to enforce maritime claims against China. Nor does China recognize any action that may jeopardize its maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.
iii. On the ways and means of dispute settlement
129. Based on an in-depth understanding of international practice and its own rich practice, China firmly believes that no matter what mechanism or means is chosen for settling disputes between any countries, the consent of states concerned should be the basis of that choice, and the will of sovereign states should not be violated.
130. On issues concerning territory and maritime delimitation, China does not accept any means of dispute settlement imposed on it, nor does it accept any recourse to third-party settlement. On 25 August 2006, China deposited, pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS, with the Secretary-General of the United Nations a declaration, stating that, "The Government of the People's Republic of China does not accept any of the procedures provided for in Section 2 of Part XV of the Convention with respect to all the categories of disputes referred to in paragraph 1 (a), (b) and (c) of Article 298 of the Convention". This explicitly excludes from UNCLOS compulsory dispute settlement procedures disputes concerning maritime delimitation, historic bays or titles, military and law enforcement activities, and disputes in respect of which the Security Council of the United Nations is exercising the functions assigned to it by the Charter of the United Nations.
131. Since its founding, the People's Republic of China has signed boundary treaties with 12 of its 14 land neighbors through bilateral negotiations and consultations in a spirit of equality and mutual understanding, and about 90% of China's land boundaries have been delimited and demarcated. China and Vietnam have delimited through negotiations the boundary between their territorial seas, exclusive economic zones and continental shelves in the Beibu Bay. China's sincerity in settling disputes through negotiation and its unremitting efforts made in this respect are known to all. It is self-evident that negotiation directly reflects the will of states. The parties directly participate in the formulation of the result. Practice demonstrates that a negotiated outcome will better gain the understanding and support of the people of countries concerned, will be effectively implemented and will be durable. Only when an agreement is reached by parties concerned through negotiation on an equal footing can a dispute be settled once and for all, and this will ensure the full and effective implementation of the agreement.
iv. On managing differences and engaging in practical maritime cooperation in the South China Sea
132. In keeping with international law and practice, pending final settlement of maritime disputes, the states concerned should exercise restraint and make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature, including establishing and improving dispute management rules and mechanisms, engaging in cooperation in various sectors, and promoting joint development while shelving differences, so as to uphold peace and stability in the South China Sea region and create conditions for the final settlement of disputes. Relevant cooperation and joint development are without prejudice to the final delimitation.
133. China works actively to promote the establishment of bilateral maritime consultation mechanisms with relevant states, explores joint development in areas such as fishery, oil and gas, and champions the active exploration by relevant countries in establishing a cooperation mechanism among the South China Sea coastal states in accordance with relevant provisions of UNCLOS.
134. China is always dedicated to working with ASEAN Member States to fully and effectively implement the DOC and actively promote practical maritime cooperation. Together the Parties have already achieved "Early Harvest Measures", including the "Hotline Platform on Search and Rescue among China and ASEAN Member States", the "Senior Officials' Hotline Platform in Response to Maritime Emergencies among Ministries of Foreign Affairs of China and ASEAN Member States", as well as the "Table-top Exercise of Search and Rescue among China and ASEAN Member States".
135. China consistently maintains that the Parties should push forward consultations on a "Code of Conduct" (COC) under the framework of full and effective implementation of the DOC, with a view to achieving an early conclusion on the basis of consensus. In order to properly manage risks at sea, pending the final conclusion of a COC, China proposed the adoption of "Preventive Measures to Manage Risks at Sea". This proposal has been unanimously accepted by all ASEAN Member States.
v. On freedom and safety of navigation in the South China Sea
136. China is committed to upholding the freedom of navigation and overflight enjoyed by all states under international law, and ensuring the safety of sea lanes of communication.
137. The South China Sea is home to a number of important sea lanes, which are among the main navigation routes for China's foreign trade and energy import. Ensuring freedom of navigation and overflight and safety of sea lanes in the South China Sea is crucial to China. Over the years, China has worked with ASEAN Member States to ensure unimpeded access to and safety of the sea lanes in the South China Sea and made important contribution to this collective endeavor. The freedom of navigation and overflight enjoyed by all states in the South China Sea under international law has never been a problem.
138. China has actively provided international public goods and made every effort to provide services, such as navigation and navigational aids, search and rescue, as well as sea conditions and meteorological forecast, through capacity building in various areas, so as to uphold and promote the safety of sea lanes in the South China Sea.
139. China maintains that, when exercising freedom of navigation and overflight in the South China Sea, relevant parties shall fully respect the sovereignty and security interests of coastal states and abide by the laws and regulations enacted by coastal states in accordance with UNCLOS and other rules of international law.
vi. On jointly upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea
140. China maintains that peace and stability in the South China Sea should be jointly upheld by China and ASEAN Member States.
141. China pursues peaceful development and adheres to a defense policy that is defensive in nature. China champions a new security vision featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination, and pursues a foreign policy of building friendship and partnership with its neighbors and of fostering an amicable, secure and prosperous neighborhood based on the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness. China is a staunch force for upholding peace and stability and advancing cooperation and development in the South China Sea. China is committed to strengthening good-neighborliness and promoting practical cooperation with its neighbors and regional organizations including ASEAN to deliver mutual benefit.
142. The South China Sea is a bridge of communication and a bond of peace, friendship, cooperation and development between China and its neighbors. Peace and stability in the South China Sea is vital to the security, development and prosperity of the countries and the well-being of the people in the region. To realize peace, stability, prosperity and development in the South China Sea region is the shared aspiration and responsibility of China and ASEAN Member States, and serves the common interests of all countries.
143. China will continue to make unremitting efforts to achieve this goal.

引用 野马头 2016-7-14 09:01
准备打仗,保家卫国!
引用 dkzxzwm 2016-7-14 09:54
如果我国在南海冲裁案后,无所作为,中国大国地位荡然无存。
引用 ttfttf 2016-7-14 15:09
这白皮书为何一定要取名“坚持通过谈判解决”?不知当年林冲是否发表过“坚持通过谈判解决娘子问题”的白皮书?

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